2 1 Introduction to Research 1.1What is research?Research is the process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors.
3 1.2.What is business research? Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems.The information provided could be the result of a careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of data that are already available (in the company).
4 1.3.Types of Business research. 1.Applied researchIs to solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting,demanding a timely solution.2.Basic research (fundamental, pure)Is to generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved.The findings of such research contribute to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of business.
5 1.4. Why is it important for managers to know about research? Solve problemsDecision making toolCompetitionRiskInvestmentHire researchers and consultants more effectively
6 2 Scientific Investigation 1 Observation2 Identification of problem area3 Theoretical framework4 Hypotheses5 Research design6 Data collection7 Data analysis8 Data interpretation9 Implementation
7 The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductive method 1 Observation2 Problem identificationpreliminary information gathering3 Theoretical frameworktheory formulation4 Hypothesizing5 Research designfurther scientific data collection6 logical analysis7 Deduction
8 The seven-step process problem statement is a clear, precise, and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based.It is logically developed,described,and elaborated network of associations among the variables relevant to the problem situation.A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction. A hypotheses should not be confused with a theory.Data analysis: the data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported.Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort.Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning of the data analysis results.
9 Problem Formulation"Well begun is half done" --Aristotle, quoting an old proverbWhere do research topics come from?The idea for a research project?one of the most common sources of research ideas is the experience of practical problems in the field?The Literature Review
11 The Research Cycle QUESTIONING PLANNING GATHERING SORTING & SIFTING SYNTHESIZINGEVALUATINGREPORTING*
12 Information needs in business Almost every organization has to engage in research at some level to stay competitive.Companies gather data both from within and outside the organization.The methods used to gather,analyze,and synthesize information from the external and internal environments are becoming increasingly sophisticated to the immense scope of computer technology.
13 Computer Technology and Business ICTInformationCommunicationTechnology
14 The research process 1 Observation 2 Data gathering 3 Problem definition4 Theoretical framework (variables identified)5 Hypotheses6 Research design7 Data collection,analysis,interpretation8 Deduction9 Report writing10 Report presentation11 Managerial decision making
15 Research design Purpose of the study: Exploratory study Is undertaken when no information is available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the pastDescriptive studyIs to able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation.Hypotheses testingIs undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predict organizational outcomes.Case studiesResearch design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together
16 Measurement The rating scale Ranking scale Have several response catagoriesLikert scale is designed o exermine how strongly subject agree or disagree with statements on a 5-point scaleRanking scaleAre used to tap preferences between two or more objects or itemsGoodness of measure : reliability,validity
17 Data collection methods Data can be collected in a variety ways ,data sources can be primary or secondary.Data collection methods such as:interview(face-to-face,telephone,computer-assisted interviews),QuestionairesObservationMotivational techniques
18 Sampling A sample is a subset of the population. Sample is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population.Studying a sample rather the entire population is sometimes to lead to more reliable results, mostly because fatigue is reduced,resulting in fewer errors on collection data. (time, cost,human resources)Surveys are useful and powerful in finding answers to research question but if data are not collected from the people or objects that can provide the correct answers to solve the problem, the survey will be in vain.
19 Data Analysis and Interpretation The data analysis involves three major steps, done in roughly this order:Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis (Data Preparation)Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics)Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential Statistics)
20 Descriptive Statistics provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.Central Tendency. The central tendency of a distribution is an estimate of the "center" of a distribution of values. There are three major types of estimates of central tendency:Mean is the most common-used measure of data tendency.=average.Median is the middle value , when the data is arranged in numerical order. Mode is the value ( number) that appears the most.Dispersion (Range, Standard Diviation)refers to the spread of the values around the central tendencyInferential statisticst-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), regression analysis, Correlation is a measure of the relation between two or more variables.we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions;we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.
22 The Research Report Researh proposal Research report Research presentation
23 Research report articles vary in how they are organized, : Abstract - Brief summary of the contents of the articleIntroduction - A explanation of the purpose of the study, a statement of the research question(s) the study intends to addressLiterature review - A critical assessment of the work done so far on this topic, to show how the current study relates to what has already been doneMethods - How the study was carried out (e.g. instruments or equipment, procedures, methods to gather and analyze data)Results - What was found in the course of the studyDiscussion - What do the results meanConclusion - State the conclusions and implications of the results, and discuss how it relates to the work reviewed in the literature review; also, point to directions for further work in the area
24 Research Proposal Introduction (2-3 pages) Methods (7-10 pages) Title PageAbstract (on a separate single page)The Body (no page breaks between sections in the body)Introduction (2-3 pages)Methods (7-10 pages)Sample (1 page)Measures (2-3 pages)Design (2-3 pages)Procedures (2-3 pages)Results (2-3 pages)Conclusions (1-2 pages)ReferencesTables (one to a page)Figures (one to a page)Appendices
25 Question? How can you solve business problem? Why do you need to know how to write the research proposal?Do you understand the research process?Do you know why do you have to identify problem statement clearly before doing research?Do you know why sampling and statistics are important to the research result?Why do you have to identify the limitation of your study?Why the research report and presentation are important?Do you know how to apply the steps of the research process ?
26 Questions1.If you want to set up a coffee shop near the university and school, what is your research topic?2.Identify the problem statement.3.Identify the objectives4.The hypotheses5. The research methodology.6. The examples of the questionaireใ