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Non Invasive Brain Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control Fabio Babiloni Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome La Sapienza.

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Presentation on theme: "Non Invasive Brain Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control Fabio Babiloni Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome La Sapienza."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non Invasive Brain Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control Fabio Babiloni Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome La Sapienza Non Invasive Brain Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control Fabio Babiloni Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome La Sapienza

2 Epilepticus sic curabitur ('The way to cure an epileptic') Sloane Manuscript, collection of medical manuscripts, end of the 12th century - British Museum, London Technologies for the study of brain functions

3 Cauterisation (15th century) Image taken from the first medical textbook "Cerrahiyyet'ül Haniyye", written in Ottoman language by the Turkish surgeon Serafettin Sabuncuoglu. Technologies for the study of brain functions

4 Hyeronimus Bosch, The stone of madness, El Prado, Madrid

5 Jan Sanders Van Hemessen ( ), The surgeon 1550, El Prado, Madrid

6 Variations of EEG waves are correlated with some mental states 8-12 Hertz, alpha EEG waves 8-12 Hertz, mu EEG waves

7 FTo move things is all that mankind can do; … for such the sole executant is muscle, whether in whispering a syllabe or in felling a forest. Sir Charles Sherrington, 1924

8 What a BCI is Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) give their users communication and control channels that do not depend on the brains normal output channels of peripheral nerves and muscles. A BCI changes the electrophysiological signals from mere reflections of CNS activity into the intended product of the activity: messages and commands that act on the world Wolpaw, 2002

9 Psychological Effort (Intention) Modification of Brain Signals Signal Features Classification Of Intent Increase of performance appropriate feature extraction appropriate feedback strategy user training computer training Environment BCI: logical scheme

10 Movement-related thoughts elicited specific cortical patterns FSeveral EEG studies have also demonstrated that imagined movements elicited desynchronization patterns different for right and left movement imaginations FNeuroscientific studies with fMRI have demonstrated that motor and parietal areas are involved in the imagination of the limb movements Imagined left movementExecuted left movement

11 SINC Detection of mu rhythm modulation Detection of P300 Detection of steady-state VEPs Detection of Slow Cortical Potentials

12 SMR is a 8-12 Hz oscillatory rhythm of the brains electrical activity. It is detected on the central electrode sites (over the sensorimotor cortex) It is associated with inhibition of motor activity 12 From Wolpaw et al. 2002, Clinph Sensory motor rhythms

13 SINC Detection of mu rhythm modulation Detection of P300 Detection of steady-state VEPs Detection of Slow Cortical Potentials

14 The P300 is an event- related potential, dominating at parietal electrode sites. P300 follows unexpected sensory stimuli or stimuli that provide task related information P300 speller From Selllers & Donchin 2006, clinph P300 potentials

15 Research Applications FSpeller FSymbolic Communication FGame FEnvironment Control FVirtual Mobility FMobility FNeuroprosthesis

16 Ministero degli Affari Esteri Progetto Brain Computer Interfaces Between China and Italy (BCI 2) Speller Credits: F. Aloise F. Babiloni U. Sapienza, Roma S. Gao Tsinghua Univ., RPC B. Hong Tsinghua Univ., RPC

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19 Fondazione Banca Nazionale della Comunicazione Progetto Inclusione nella ICT di soggetti affetti da grave disabilità motoria tramite… Game Credits: F. Aloise F. Babiloni U. Sapienza, Roma

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21 Fondazione Telethon Progetto ASPICE Virtual Mobility Credits: F. Aloise G. Oriolo U. Sapienza, Roma A. Cherubini U. Sapienza, Roma

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23 Credits: J. Millàn IDIAP, CH M. Nuttin KU Leuven. B F. Cincotti FSL European Commission – 6 th Framework Programme Progetto MAIA FP6 Mobility

24 P300-based control of a domestic environment

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26 Credits: F. Babiloni F.Aloise F. Cincotti FSL M.C. Carrozza SSSA, Pisa Neuroprosthesis

27 Future trends F640 KB RAM will be adequate for everybody in the future »Bill Gates, 1981 FIts always hard to make prediction, especially about the future FPeople will not wear scalp electrodes during normal daylife »Chief of Research and Development of a mobile phone company FComputers are interesting, but the mondial market for them is limited in the future to not more of 5 pieces per year »Thomas Watson, IBM president, 1949

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