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**Measurements and the Metric System**

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**The Metric System A universal measurement system**

Also called the International System or SI units Only three countries worldwide don’t use the metric system (USA, Burma, and Liberia)

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The Metric System Based on multiples of ten (this makes it easy to use) Uses prefixes to identify larger or smaller units of measure Common Prefixes Symbol Multiple kilo K 1000 centi c .01 milli m .001

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**Metric Conversions - Length**

Km m dm cm mm x x x x 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷10

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**Metric Conversions - Volume**

Kl l dl cl ml x x x x 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷10

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**Metric Conversions - Mass**

Kg g dg cg mg x x x x 10 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷10

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**Length Metric measurements A measure of linear distance**

Basic unit of length is the meter (m) Measurements made with a meter stick or metric ruler Metric measurements The entire meter stick represents one meter Each number represents a centimeter (there are 100 centimeters in a meter) Each little line is a millimeter (there are 1000 millimeters in a meter)

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**Area Metric measurements**

The amount of surface included within a set of boundaries Determined by measuring the length and width of an object, then multiplying Metric measurements Length = 14 cm Width = 7 cm Area = 14 cm x 7 cm = 98 cm2 (Area is always expressed in square units)

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**Volume Metric measurements Volume is the space that an object occupies**

Represents the length, width, and height of an object For solids, measurements are based on units of length (ex. cm3) and can be calculated using specific formulas Metric measurements

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**Calculating the volume of a rectangular prism**

Volume of a rectangular prism = length x width x height (l x w x h) Metric measurements Length = 10 cm Width = 3 cm Height = 4 cm Volume = l x w x h = 10 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm = 120 cm3 4 cm 3 cm 10 cm

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**Calculating the volume of a cylinder**

Metric measurements Diameter = 10 cm 20 cm

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**Volume of a liquid Metric measurements A graduated cylinder is used to**

accurately measure the volume of liquids in milliliters Determine the volume in a graduated cylinder by reading the bottom of the meniscus at eye level Once the volume of a liquid is known, it can be converted to a “solid volume” by using the formula 1 ml = 1 cm3 Metric measurements

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**Mass Metric measurements**

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object Mass is measured in grams using a balance Metric measurements The mass of an object remains the same, no matter where in the universe it is measured

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**Weight Metric measurements**

Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object by a massive body Metric measurements Weight is measured in Newtons (N) using a spring scale Weight varies from place to place depending on the strength of the gravitational force Your weight on Earth = Mass (Kg) X 9.8 m/s² (Earth’s surface gravity) For a person with a mass of 45 Kg Weight = 45 Kg X 9.8 m/s² = 441 N

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**Gravity Metric measurements**

Gravity is the force of attraction between objects The strength of the gravitational force between objects depends on: - The distance between the objects ( the gravitational force between objects decreases with distance) -Mass ( the greater the mass of an object, the greater it’s gravitational force) Metric measurements

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**Density Metric measurements**

Density is the mass of a specific volume of an object Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume Units for density are usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3 ) Metric measurements Since the density of water is 1 g/cm3 anything with a density less than 1 g/cm3 will float in water and anything greater will sink

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**Calculating Density A Density = Mass Volume**

Volume of Object A = 5 cm x 2 cm x 3 cm = 30 cm³ Mass of Object A = 150 grams (measured on a balance) 3 cm 2 cm 5 cm Density = Mass Volume Density of Object A = 150 grams = 5 g/cm³ 30 cm³

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