2 DefinitionOrganizational behavior (OB) is a term related to the study of individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting, as well as the nature of the organizations themselves.Focus on individual and group behavior in the organizational context.
3 Purpose and MethodOB seeks to emphasize the understanding of behavior in organizations so as to develop competencies in foreseeing how people are likely to behave.QuestionnaireInterviewSimulation
4 PersonalityPersonality refers to some qualities, characteristics skills and competencies of individuals along with certain other traits like grooming and attitude.Measuring PersonalityPersonality InventoriesProjective TestsAssessment Centre
5 Work/Job MotivationMotivation is a process that starts with physiological or psychological urge or need. It activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.Generally, “to be motivated means to be moved to do something”. (Deci & Ryan, 1999)Job motivation is defined as “a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work- related behavior and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration”. (Pinder, 1998)
6 Motivation Job Enrichment Flexi Time Empowerment Quality Circles Employees Stock Ownership Plan
7 Job SatisfactionJob satisfaction can be defined as an individual’s overall attitude towards his or her job.Job Satisfaction is the degree to which employees have a positive affective orientation towards employment by the organization. (Price, 1997 & Vroom, 1964)
8 Factors Compensation Organizational Justice Person-Organization fit Trust in SupervisorThe nature of workWorking ConditionsJob Autonomy
9 Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment measures individual's psychological attachment to a certain organization.Different with Job Commitment
10 Organizational Commitment 1) Attitudinal commitment approachOrganizational commitment associate with certain organizational outcomes, such as turnover, job satisfaction and productivity.Focus on discovering what personal characteristics and situational conditions contribute to organizational commitment.2) Behavioral commitment approachSearches the conditions under which an employee may develop more commitment behaviors
11 Organizational Commitment “Affective commitment refers to the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Employees with a strong affective commitment continue employment with the organization because they want to do so.” (Meyer and Allen, 1991) “Continuance commitment refers to an awareness of the costs associated with leaving the organization. Employees whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance commitment remain because they need to do so.” (Meyer and Allen, 1991) “Normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment. Employees with a high level of normative commitment feel that they ought to remain with the organization.” (Meyer and Allen, 1991)
12 LeadershipThe word leadership can refer to the process of leading, the concept of leading and those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.Actual leaderPotential leaderFormal & Informal
13 PurposeOrganizations and groups aim to identify, foster and promote what they see as leadership potential or ability.Become a Leader:Knowing yourselfKonwing the worldOperation on instinctDeploying yourself: Stike hard,try everythingMoving Through ChaosGetting people on your sideOrganizations can help – or hinderForging the future
14 Leader TraitsGuiding others through providing a role model and through willingness to serve others firstTalent and technical/specific skill at some task at handCharismatic inspiration -attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this esteem to motivate others(Page 162)
15 Charismatic leadership Charismatic leadership, or transformational leadership, is a kind of leadership that emphasizes symbolic leader behavior, visionary and inspirational ability, nonverbal communication, expectations for follower self-sacrifice, and for performance beyond expectations.
18 Issues and Challenges Who should be regarded as a leader. Followership Management VS. LeadershipManagers administer, leaders innovateManagers ask how and when, leaders ask what and whyManagers focus on systems, leaders focus on people(Page 164)
19 Authority and PowerAuthority can be defined as the ability of an individual to seek compliance to the regulated instructions of the superior. It refers to the formal rights inherently available to a manager to give orders and see their compliance.Power is the ability of individuals or groups to make their own concerns or interests count, even where others resist.
20 Authority and PowerAuthority is legally enforced and is derived from level of position in an organization. Power however is individual and independent and originates from charisma and social positioning.Authority is formal based upon superior and subordinate relationship. Power is informal and is based upon individual understanding.(Page 165)
21 Essence of PowerFearDesirePower: A New Social Analysis