Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 - Developing and Acquiring Information Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9 - Developing and Acquiring Information Systems Managers from across organizations are involved in developing and acquiring information systems
2 Chapter 9 Learning Objectives Making the Business CaseDescribe how to formulate and present the business case for technology investments.The Systems Development ProcessDescribe the systems development life cycle and its various phases.Acquiring Information SystemsExplain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing.
3 The Productivity Paradox IS productivity figures are difficult to demonstrate due to:Measurement problemsTime lagsRedistributionMismanagement
4 The Productivity Paradox Measurement ProblemsEffectiveness vs. efficiencyToo often the measure is based on efficiency.
5 The Productivity Paradox Give an example of how information systems may be used in unintended ways.
6 The Productivity Paradox - Time Lags When can the benefits of an information system lag behind the realized benefits?
7 The Productivity Paradox - Redistribution If an information systems simply redistributes the pieces of the pie rather than make the pie bigger, does it create any value?
8 The Productivity Paradox - Mismanagement Can a good information system overcome a bad business model?IS investments might merely be a temporary bandage.May mask or even increase organizational slack and inefficiency
9 Making the Business Case and Its Objectives In addition to quantifying and showing how the information system will add value, you must understand your company’s or organization’s particular business strategy in order to make an effective business caseMust gain an understanding of your company’s position in the marketplace, its strategy for investing in systems that add valueBuild a strong, integrated set of arguments and evidence.Prove that an information system adds value to the organization or its constituents.Ferret out systems that are not adding value.Proposed system –determine whether the new system is a “go” or a “no-go”.Existing system—determine whether the company will continue to fund the system.
10 Making a Successful Business Case Three common types of arguments in a business case for an IS:FaithFearFact
11 Making a Successful Business Case FaithArguments are based on beliefs about organizational strategy, competitive advantage, industry forces, customer perceptions, market share, and so onFirm’s mission and objectives, strategy for achieving them, and types of IS needed should be clearly described.
12 Arguments Based on Fear Do you need a cost benefits analysis for an argument based on fear?Come on, how do you instill “fear” in an organization?
13 Making a Successful Business Case FearArguments are based on the notion that if the system is not implemented, the firm will lose out to the competition or, worse, go out of business.Key factors are the competitive forces in the environment, based on Porter’s Five Forces Model
14 Scenario You are the CIO of a small to mid sized company You are meeting with an independent consultant who is trying to get you to hire him to develop a business continuity plan and a disaster recovery planIs a business case based on “Fear” effective?
15 Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Catastrophic loss of ability to deliver services from primary locationMust resume services from alternate locationDisaster recovery plan driven by the business’Recover time objective (RTO)Recovery point objective (RPO)Business Continuity – How you continue to provide essential business services between time of the disaster and the execution of DR plan
16 Sobering StatisticsFrom the U.S. National Fire Protection Agency and the U.S. Bureau of LaborNearly 75% of all U.S. businesses have experienced a business interruption20% of small to medium size businesses suffer a major disaster every five years43% of US companies never reopen after a disaster and 29% close within three years93% of companies that suffer a significant data lose are out of business within five years
17 Arguments Based on Fact Do you need a cost benefits analysis for an argument based on fact?
18 Making a Successful Business Case FactArguments are based on data, quantitative analysis, and/or indisputable factors.Provide a detailed cost-benefit analysis as proof.
19 Cost-Benefit Analysis Identifying costsTotal cost of ownership (TCO)Nonrecurring costs vs. recurring costsTangible costs vs. intangible costsIdentifying benefitsTangible benefits vs. intangible benefitsPerforming cost-benefit analysisBreakeven analysisNet-present value analysisComparing competing investmentsWeighted multi-criteria analysis
20 Cost-Benefit Analysis Example Worksheet showing a simplified cost–benefit analysis for a Web-based order fulfillment system.
21 Presenting the Business Case Know the audience.People from different areas of the firm typically hold very different perspectives.Convert benefits to monetary terms.Example: Convert time savings into dollar figures.Devise proxy variables.Alternative measures of outcomesExample: Reduction in administrative tasks, more customer contactMeasure what is important to management.Concentrate on the issues senior business managers care about.Hot-button issues: Cycle time, regulatory and compliance issues, customer feedback, employee morale
22 The Systems Development Process Making the Business CaseDescribe how to formulate and present the business case for technology investments.The Systems Development ProcessDescribe the systems development life cycle and its various phases.Acquiring Information SystemsExplain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing.
23 It’s not always what you expect It’s in not always an earthquake or a hurricane
24 Steps in the Systems Development Process Systems development life cycle (SDLC)Systems development goes through a cycleOnce completed, a system moves into an ongoing maintenance phase that parallels the initial development process.
25 Phase 1: Systems Identification, Selection and Planning Identify, plan, and select a development.Possible approaches-Formal information systems planning process-Ad hoc process for identifying potential projectsUse evaluation criteria for classifying and ranking potential projects.Analyst works with potential users and managers.Analyst builds the business case.
26 The Systems Development Process Systems analysis and designDesigning, building, and maintaining information systemsFollow a standardized approachSystems analyst—a person who performs the systems analysis task.Requires both technical and managerial expertiseHelps define requirementsManages the projectDemand for skilled systems analysts is very strong.Wall Street Journal named systems analyst the third-best job for 2010.U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics ranks systems analysts near the top of all professions for job stability, income, and employment growth through 2016.
27 Phase 2: Systems Analysis Designers gain understanding of current processes.Tasks:Collecting Systems RequirementsModeling DataModeling Processes and LogicAnalysts develop one or many possible designs.Analysts evaluate alternative system design approaches.Analysts gain understanding of current processes and needs
37 End-User DevelopmentEnd-user development is a commonly used practice by tech-savvy managers who want to enhance their decision making and business intelligence.Using tools such as Microsoft Access, a sales manager can develop an application to track sales.
38 Acquiring Information Systems Making the Business CaseDescribe how to formulate and present the business case for technology investments.The Systems Development ProcessDescribe the systems development life cycle and its various phases.Acquiring Information SystemsExplain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing.
39 Customized Vs. Off-the-Shelf Software General purpose systems typically are purchased off-the-shelf.Specific needs often cannot be met by off-the shelf software.Companies capitalizing on a first-mover advantage often cannot purchase existing systems.Examples: online retailing (Amazon.com) and Budget air travel (Southwest Airlines)
40 Customized SoftwareDeveloped in-house or contracted/outsourced to a specialized vendorAdvantages of customized softwareCustomizabilityFit with business operations, culture, and so onProblem specificityCompany only pays for features actually needed.
41 Off-the-Shelf Software Packaged softwareSupports common business processes that do not require any specific tailoringAdvantagesLess costlyEasy to procureRequire no specific tailoring
42 Combining Customized and Packaged software There are a variety of sources for information systems.
43 Steps in External Acquisition Competitive bid process—find the best system for lowest possible price.Systems planning and selectionSystems analysisDevelopment of a request for proposalProposal evaluationVendor selectionThe first two steps are similar to SDLC.
44 Development of a Request for Proposal (RFP) Areas covered in an RFP
45 Proposal EvaluationProposal evaluation—An assessment of proposals received from vendors.May include system demonstrationsSystem benchmarking – evaluation methodStandardized tests to compare different proposed systemsCommon system benchmarksResponse time given a specified number of usersTime to sort recordsTime to retrieve a set of recordsTime to produce a given recordTime to read in a set of data
46 Vendor Selection Usually more than one system will meet the criteria. Determine the best fitNeed to prioritize/rank the proposed systemsBest ranking system is chosen.Formal approach—devise a scoring system for the criteriaLess formal approaches:ChecklistsSubjective processes
47 Multicriteria Analysis Example Alternative projects and system design decisions can be assisted using weighted multi-criteria analysis.
48 Managing Software Licensing Software licensing is the permissions and rights that are imposed on applications by the software companyLegal and ethical implications of using unlicensed softwareFor organizations using proprietary software:Shrink-wrap licenses (for off-the-shelf software)Click-wrap licenses (for downloaded software)Enterprise licensesVolume licensesSoftware asset managementHelps organizations to better manage the software infrastructure and avoid legal problems
49 Application Service Providers (ASP) ProblemsManaging the software infrastructure is a complex task.High operating costsScalability issuesASPs provide software as a service (SaaS)Reduced need to maintain or upgrade softwareVariable fee based on actual use of servicesAbility to rely on a provider’s expertise
50 Outsourcing Systems Development Outsourcing systems development—Turning over responsibility for some or all of an organization’s IS development and operations to an outside firm.Your IS solutions may be housed in their organization.Your applications may be run on their computers.They may develop systems to run on your existing computers (within your organization).
51 Why Outsourcing?Cost and quality concerns—higher quality or lower cost systems may be available through outsourcing.Problems in IS performance—IS departments might have problems meeting acceptable standards.Supplier pressure—aggressive sales force convinces senior management to outsource IS functions.Simplifying, downsizing, and reengineering— focusing on core competencies.
52 Why Outsourcing? (cont’d) Financial factors—liquidation of IT assets.Organizational culture—external IS groups are devoid of political ties.Internal irritants—external IS group may be better accepted by other organizational users.
53 Managing the IS Outsourcing Relationship Ongoing management of an outsourcing alliance is needed.Strong, active CIO and staffClear, realistic performance measurements of the systemMultiple levels of interface between customer and outsourcerFull-time relationship managers should be assigned.
54 Not All Outsourcing Relationships Are the Same No longer just a legal contractStrategic, mutually beneficial partnershipDifferent types of outsourcing relationshipsBasic relationship—“Cash & Carry”Preferred relationship—Set preferential pricingStrategic relationship—Share risks/rewards