2 Positive Reinforcement Delivered Immediately after a behaviorDelivered contingent upon a behaviorIncreases probability of future behavior
3 Potential Rule Governed Behavior When no immediate consequenceBehavior changes without reinforcementLarge increase in behavior follows one instance of reinforcementRule exists
4 Some important Points We do not reinforce people Practice is not reinforcementFeedback is not always reinforcementArtificial Reinforcement does not mean “fake”
5 Motivating Operations Establishing Operations: Increases temporarily the immediate effectiveness of a reinforcer.DeprivationAbolishing Operations: Decreases temporarily the immediate effectiveness of a reinforcerSatiation
9 Generalized Conditioned Reinforcement Neutral Stimulus that is paired with many other reinforcersThe more reinforcers are paired with a neutral stimulus the more likely the neutral stimulus becomes a GCRE.g. money
10 Premack Principle LPR Before access to HPR Response-Deprivation Hypothesis (Timberlake & Allison, 1974).This is an important consideration when developing treatments.Don’t just make HPR contingent.It must be contingent and be deprived relative to free operant levels!
12 Identifying Potential Reinforcers Continued Reinforcer AssessmentConcurrent Schedule of ReinforcementMay cause premature rejection (preference does not mean ineffective reinforcer).Multiple Schedule Reinforcer AssessmentProgressive-Ratio Schedule Reinforcer AssessmentIncrease response effort (schedule) and see how behavior changes.
13 Other Methods of Identifying Reinforcers ABABNon-contingent ReinforcementDifferential Reinforcement
14 Non-Contingent Reinforcement? What is wrong with this term?Presenting Reinforcement on a time schedule
15 Tips for Using Reinforcement Easily Achieved Initial CriterionSufficient Magnitude of ReinforcerVary ReinforcerDirect contingencies when possibleUse prompts with reinforcementReinforce each occurrence initiallyUse praise/attention with other reinforcersGradually increase response-to-reinforcement delay (some call this fading – it is not – Thinning)
16 Negative Reinforcement Removal of aversive stimulusImmediately after a behaviorIncreases probability of behavior in future
17 Escape Versus Avoidance Escape – TerminationAvoidance – Prevention
20 Fixed RatioReinforcement delivered after a specific number of target responses are emitted.Post Reinforcement PauseLarger the ratio longer the PRPDeLuca & Holborn (1990)Provided FR schedule to pedaling behavior of fat people. Fat people started pedaling more
21 Variable RatioReinforcement provided contingent upon a variable number of responses.Strong Consistent PerformanceGroup Contingencies makes use of VR Schedules
22 Fixed IntervalReinforcement provided after first response after specified period of time.PRP and Scallop EffectSlow rates of responding
23 Variable IntervalReinforcement provided after first response after variable duration of time elapsed.Constant stable rate of respondingLimited Hold: amount of time R+ is available once interval elapses.
25 Compound Schedules of Reinforcement Can be:Successive or simultaneouslyWith or without discriminative stimuliReinforcement for each element or for the combination of all.
26 Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement 2 contingencies of reinforcement operating independently and simultaneouslyE.g. you can study or go out for the nightBehaviors are Matched to maximize rates of reinforcement
27 Discriminative Schedules Multiple Schedule (Stimulus discrimination)Alternating two or more schedulesUses an S+ to signal each schedule(e.g. 1 behavior class but two different situations for two different reinforcement schedules)Chained ScheduleSpecific order of presentationBehavior may be different for each scheduleAll schedules must be complete for final outcome
28 Nondiscriminative Schedules Mixed SchedulesSame as Mult. But no discriminative stimulusFR15/FI1 sometimes after FR15 and sometimes after FI1Tandem SchedulesSame as chained but no discriminative stimulusFR 15/FI2 means first instance will be 15 response and second will be in 2 minutes
29 Combined Schedules Alternative Schedules Conjunctive Schedules Either or Schedule (whichever comes first)Conjunctive SchedulesBoth Schedules being met before reinforcement is provided