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Energy Efficiency and Climate- Friendly Power Supply

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Efficiency and Climate- Friendly Power Supply"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Efficiency and Climate- Friendly Power Supply
Electricity 2020 Bill Grant Izaak Walton League of America

2 No energy “free lunch” Nuclear power – exposure, waste disposal
Hydropower – river impoundment, flooding Oil – air emissions, availability Natural gas – availability, price Renewables – variability, price, bird kills Coal – air emissions, toxic releases, mining impacts, combustion waste, global warming

3 Efficiency: Minnesota’s Least Cost Energy Source
Electric use is growing at 2%/year; without efficiency, we will need to add new supply Since 1990, Minnesota electric utilities have saved 2,000 megawatts, the equivalent of two large coal or nuclear power plants Savings have come at less than 2 cents/kWh; compare to new coal at over 6.5 cents/kWh

4 Benefits of Energy Efficiency
Lowest cost resource Economic development and job creation 4,000 new jobs by 2010; $200 million in annual economic output Reduces need for new power plants Reduces pollution 20 million tons of CO2 reduced with Governor’s proposed goal of 1.5% annual savings When combined with new renewable energy development, can meet new power needs and reduce CO2 emissions


6 Climate Friendly Power Supply
Renewable energy: Wind, biomass, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal Proposed 25 X 25 renewable energy standard will cut CO2 emissions by 17 million tons (11%) Combined heat and power (cogeneration) Coal gasification with carbon sequestration

7 Fuels Used to Generate Electricity in MN
Source: DOC


9 Proposed Midwest Coal Plants

10 2002 Minnesota CO2 Emissions
Source: MPCA

11 Carbon Dioxide No longer a question of if climate change is happening – now a question of what the impacts will be Recently released IPCC report asserts that human activity is likely the cause; urgent action on a global scale is needed, but its not too late to avoid catastrophic warming Midwest (MN, WI, MI, IL, IN, OH) coal-fired power plants are responsible for 8% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 2% of world total CO2 emissions North America’s mean temperature has already risen 1.25ºF, global mean temperature has already risen 1ºF

12 CO2 – economic impacts Climate change will impact traditional Midwest economic sectors – agriculture, forestry, shipping, recreation, etc. Ships either carry less or need for more dredging (which will release buried toxins) which may increase shipping costs Agriculture will experience some initial benefits due to longer growing season, but over time, there may be a northern migration of pests and plant diseases Recreation and tourism industries will also be impacted: Decline in winter recreation opportunities with shorter winters Lake ice cover in Madison, WI, declined from 120 days per year in 1850 to 90 days per year today Summer recreation – boating impacts (lower water levels will affect marina owners, increase costs)

13 The Clean-up Conundrum
Spending millions of dollars to clean up old coal-fired power plants has the unwanted effect of extending plant lifetimes; creates barriers to market entry for new, cleaner technologies Adding controls for SOX, NOX, and mercury may lead to even higher CO2 emissions

14 Gasification Overview
130 gasification plants in operation world-wide Most of these are in chemical production, not electricity Technology is referred to as “integrated gasification combined cycle” (IGCC) There are 16 IGCC plants that operate now or have been in operation. Another 6 IGCC plants are in development. These use a variety of fuels including oil, pet coke,and coal

15 CO2 Emissions: IGCC v. Coal
• IGCC technology “easily” captures CO2 from air emissions. - Getting the CO2 out of the IGCC emissions stream is “easy”, but compression and sequestration is expensive. • Conventional coal plants can’t remove CO2 from emissions at any reasonable cost.

16 Implications Options to stop global warming could close if the next generation of coal plants worldwide can’t capture carbon dioxide. Climate scientists generally agree on need to cut CO2 emissions by 80% before A full implementation of efficiency and renewable energy cannot reach this target without carbon sequestration or some combination of nuclear, fuel switching (i.e., natural gas), or carbon sinks (forests, ag soils, etc) Need to establish IGCC with the option of capturing carbon dioxide as the dominant coal technology in the United States and export that example worldwide.

17 Carbon Sequestration Terrestrial sequestration (forest and agricultural crops) Underground injection – a.k.a. geologic sequestration – is not new: Current fluid injection practiced for a wide range of industries, including summer natural gas storage, enhanced oil recovery, hazardous waste, oilfield brine Geology of MN may not lend itself to geologic sequestration – Canadian Shield granite Still many questions…

18 Underground injection is not new
The mass of current U.S. fluid injections is greater than the mass of current power plant CO2 emissions. CO2 from all US power plants ~1.7 Gt 10000 Large quantities Gases Sub-seabed Long Time Frame 1000 ~2.7 Gt ~.5 Gt Mt/year 100 ~150Mt ~34 Mt ~6Mt 10 ~28Mt ~2 Mt ~1.2 Mt 1 FL Municipal Oilfield Brine Hazardous Acid Gas Natural Gas CO2 for OCS water injected for EOR and brine disposal OCS gases (e.g., NG) Wastewater Waste Storage EOR Complied by EPP Ph.D. student E. Wilson with data from EPA, 2001; Deurling, 2001; Keith, 2001; DOE, 2001; DOE, 2001.

19 Geologic Formations with Carbon Sequestration Potential

20 State IGCC Experience States with existing IGCC power plants using coal as a feedstock: Indiana: 192 MW Wabash River plant Florida: 262 MW unit at the Polk Station in Tampa, owned by Tampa Electric Co. Other gasification plants produce chemicals, not power, using coal, petcoke, petroleum, and/or gas. Examples: North Dakota: Great Plains Synfuels Texas: Houston Oxochemicals Louisiana: Baton Rouge Oxochemicals Tennessee: Eastman Kodak

21 In conclusion… Getting serious about energy efficiency makes sense regardless of your views on global warming – it is the ultimate “no regrets” strategy Ditto for renewables, esp. wind and biomass Coal’s predominance in the electric sector requires a “carbon-neutral” solution, e.g., coal gasification with carbon sequestration

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