Presentation on theme: "Energy Efficiency and Climate- Friendly Power Supply"— Presentation transcript:
1 Energy Efficiency and Climate- Friendly Power Supply Electricity 2020Bill GrantIzaak Walton League of America
2 No energy “free lunch” Nuclear power – exposure, waste disposal Hydropower – river impoundment, floodingOil – air emissions, availabilityNatural gas – availability, priceRenewables – variability, price, bird killsCoal – air emissions, toxic releases, mining impacts, combustion waste, global warming
3 Efficiency: Minnesota’s Least Cost Energy Source Electric use is growing at 2%/year; without efficiency, we will need to add new supplySince 1990, Minnesota electric utilities have saved 2,000 megawatts, the equivalent of two large coal or nuclear power plantsSavings have come at less than 2 cents/kWh; compare to new coal at over 6.5 cents/kWh
4 Benefits of Energy Efficiency Lowest cost resourceEconomic development and job creation4,000 new jobs by 2010; $200 million in annual economic outputReduces need for new power plantsReduces pollution20 million tons of CO2 reduced with Governor’s proposed goal of 1.5% annual savingsWhen combined with new renewable energy development, can meet new power needs and reduce CO2 emissions
6 Climate Friendly Power Supply Renewable energy: Wind, biomass, solar, hydroelectric, geothermalProposed 25 X 25 renewable energy standard will cut CO2 emissions by 17 million tons (11%)Combined heat and power (cogeneration)Coal gasification with carbon sequestration
7 Fuels Used to Generate Electricity in MN Source: DOC
11 Carbon DioxideNo longer a question of if climate change is happening – now a question of what the impacts will beRecently released IPCC report asserts that human activity is likely the cause; urgent action on a global scale is needed, but its not too late to avoid catastrophic warmingMidwest (MN, WI, MI, IL, IN, OH) coal-fired power plants are responsible for 8% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 2% of world total CO2 emissionsNorth America’s mean temperature has already risen 1.25ºF, global mean temperature has already risen 1ºF
12 CO2 – economic impactsClimate change will impact traditional Midwest economic sectors – agriculture, forestry, shipping, recreation, etc.Ships either carry less or need for more dredging (which will release buried toxins) which may increase shipping costsAgriculture will experience some initial benefits due to longer growing season, but over time, there may be a northern migration of pests and plant diseasesRecreation and tourism industries will also be impacted:Decline in winter recreation opportunities with shorter wintersLake ice cover in Madison, WI, declined from 120 days per year in 1850 to 90 days per year todaySummer recreation – boating impacts (lower water levels will affect marina owners, increase costs)
13 The Clean-up Conundrum Spending millions of dollars to clean up old coal-fired power plants has the unwanted effect of extending plant lifetimes; creates barriers to market entry for new, cleaner technologiesAdding controls for SOX, NOX, and mercury may lead to even higher CO2 emissions
14 Gasification Overview 130 gasification plants in operation world-wideMost of these are in chemical production, not electricityTechnology is referred to as “integrated gasification combined cycle” (IGCC)There are 16 IGCC plants that operate now or have been in operation. Another 6 IGCC plants are in development.These use a variety of fuels including oil, pet coke,and coal
15 CO2 Emissions: IGCC v. Coal • IGCC technology “easily” captures CO2 from air emissions.- Getting the CO2 out of the IGCC emissions stream is “easy”, but compression and sequestration is expensive.• Conventional coal plants can’t remove CO2 from emissions at any reasonable cost.
16 ImplicationsOptions to stop global warming could close if the next generation of coal plants worldwide can’t capture carbon dioxide.Climate scientists generally agree on need to cut CO2 emissions by 80% before A full implementation of efficiency and renewable energy cannot reach this target without carbon sequestration or some combination of nuclear, fuel switching (i.e., natural gas), or carbon sinks (forests, ag soils, etc)Need to establish IGCC with the option of capturing carbon dioxide as the dominant coal technology in the United States and export that example worldwide.
17 Carbon SequestrationTerrestrial sequestration (forest and agricultural crops)Underground injection – a.k.a. geologic sequestration – is not new:Current fluid injection practiced for a wide range of industries, including summer natural gas storage, enhanced oil recovery, hazardous waste, oilfield brineGeology of MN may not lend itself to geologic sequestration – Canadian Shield graniteStill many questions…
18 Underground injection is not new The mass of current U.S. fluid injections is greater than themass of current power plant CO2 emissions.CO2 fromall USpower plants~1.7 Gt10000Large quantitiesGasesSub-seabedLong Time Frame1000~2.7 Gt~.5 GtMt/year100~150Mt~34 Mt~6Mt10~28Mt~2 Mt~1.2 Mt1FL MunicipalOilfieldBrineHazardousAcidGasNatural GasCO2 forOCS water injected for EOR and brine disposalOCSgases(e.g., NG)WastewaterWasteStorageEORComplied by EPP Ph.D. student E. Wilson with data fromEPA, 2001; Deurling, 2001; Keith, 2001; DOE, 2001; DOE, 2001.
19 Geologic Formations with Carbon Sequestration Potential
20 State IGCC ExperienceStates with existing IGCC power plants using coal as a feedstock:Indiana: 192 MW Wabash River plantFlorida: 262 MW unit at the Polk Station in Tampa, owned by Tampa Electric Co.Other gasification plants produce chemicals, not power, using coal, petcoke, petroleum, and/or gas. Examples:North Dakota: Great Plains SynfuelsTexas: Houston OxochemicalsLouisiana: Baton Rouge OxochemicalsTennessee: Eastman Kodak
21 In conclusion…Getting serious about energy efficiency makes sense regardless of your views on global warming – it is the ultimate “no regrets” strategyDitto for renewables, esp. wind and biomassCoal’s predominance in the electric sector requires a “carbon-neutral” solution, e.g., coal gasification with carbon sequestration