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The Inca Empire Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman.

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Presentation on theme: "The Inca Empire Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Inca Empire Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman

2 Background Empire extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile Empire extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile Inca originated in village of Paqari- tampu, about 15mi south of Cuzco Inca originated in village of Paqari- tampu, about 15mi south of Cuzco Official language: Quecha Official language: Quecha

3 Polytheistic religion- Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god Polytheistic religion- Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god combined features of animism, fetishism, worship of nature gods combined features of animism, fetishism, worship of nature gods offered food, clothing, and drink offered food, clothing, and drink rituals included forms of divination, sacrifice of humans and animals rituals included forms of divination, sacrifice of humans and animals

4 Events leading to Rise and Fall 1438 : Manco Capac established capital at Cuzco (Peru) 1438 : Manco Capac established capital at Cuzco (Peru) : Pachacuti gained control of Andean population about 12 million people : Pachacuti gained control of Andean population about 12 million people 1525 : Emperor Huayna Capac died of plague; civil war broke out between two sons because no successor named 1525 : Emperor Huayna Capac died of plague; civil war broke out between two sons because no successor named 1532 : Spanish arrived in Peru 1532 : Spanish arrived in Peru 1535 : Empire lost 1535 : Empire lost

5 Francisco Pizarro 1527 : Pizarro wanted to discover wealth; embarked on his third voyage to the New World 1527 : Pizarro wanted to discover wealth; embarked on his third voyage to the New World Sept. to Nov : Sept. to Nov : The Cajamarca massacre- Pizarro led 160 Spaniards to Cuzco, slaughtering over 2,000 Inca and injuring 5,000 The Cajamarca massacre- Pizarro led 160 Spaniards to Cuzco, slaughtering over 2,000 Inca and injuring 5,000

6 November 16, 1532 : Atahualpa captured by Spaniards, offered gold for his freedom. November 16, 1532 : Atahualpa captured by Spaniards, offered gold for his freedom. Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold ($6 million+) baubles, dishes, icons, ornaments, jewelry, & vases, but never released Atahualpa. ($6 million+) baubles, dishes, icons, ornaments, jewelry, & vases, but never released Atahualpa. July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was killed July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was killed

7 Important People/Positions Emperors known by various titles, Sapa Inca, Capac Apu, Intip Cori, or Inca Emperors known by various titles, Sapa Inca, Capac Apu, Intip Cori, or Inca Manco Capac (1000 CE) Manco Capac (1000 CE) Sinchi Roca (1230) Sinchi Roca (1230) Lloque Yupanqui (1260) Lloque Yupanqui (1260) Mayta Capac (1300) Mayta Capac (1300) Capac Yupanqui (1320) Capac Yupanqui (1320) Inca Roca (1350) Inca Roca (1350) Yahuar Huacac (1380) Yahuar Huacac (1380) Viracocha Inca (1410) Viracocha Inca (1410) Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui ( ) Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui ( ) Topa Inca Yupanqui ( ) Topa Inca Yupanqui ( ) Huayna Capac ( ) Huayna Capac ( ) Huascar ( ) Huascar ( ) Atahualpa ( ) Atahualpa ( )

8 Manco Capac ( ) founder of Inca dynasty founder of Inca dynasty declared himself Sapa Inca, divine son of the Sun declared himself Sapa Inca, divine son of the Sun skilled warrior and leader skilled warrior and leader chief religious leader chief religious leader exercised absolute power exercised absolute power

9 Pachacuti ( ) Usurped throne form brother Inca Urcon Usurped throne form brother Inca Urcon Considered the founder of the Inca Empire Considered the founder of the Inca Empire Skilled warrior and chief religious leader Skilled warrior and chief religious leader Claimed he was divine, son of the sun Claimed he was divine, son of the sun Exercised absolute power Exercised absolute power

10 Important Positions Local governors responsible for exacting labor tax which could be paid by service in army, on public works, or in agricultural work Local governors responsible for exacting labor tax which could be paid by service in army, on public works, or in agricultural work Coya carried out important religious duties and governed when Sapa Inca absent Coya carried out important religious duties and governed when Sapa Inca absent Nobles ruled provinces w/ chieftains Inca conquered Nobles ruled provinces w/ chieftains Inca conquered

11 Political Philosophy policy of forced resettlement ensured political stability policy of forced resettlement ensured political stability officials collected taxes, enforced laws, kept records on a quipu (collection of knotted colored strings) which noted dates, events, population, crops officials collected taxes, enforced laws, kept records on a quipu (collection of knotted colored strings) which noted dates, events, population, crops use of road system strictly limited to government, military business use of road system strictly limited to government, military business all land belonged to Inca, crops allotted to specific groups, government took possession of each harvest all land belonged to Inca, crops allotted to specific groups, government took possession of each harvest private property forbidden, crime nonexistent, citizens never starved private property forbidden, crime nonexistent, citizens never starved no written records; oral tradition preserved through generations no written records; oral tradition preserved through generations

12 Economic Developments constructed aquaducts, cities, temples, fortresses, short rock tunnels, suspension bridges, 2250mi road system constructed aquaducts, cities, temples, fortresses, short rock tunnels, suspension bridges, 2250mi road system metal works of alloy, copper, tin, bronze, silver gold metal works of alloy, copper, tin, bronze, silver gold developed important medical practices- surgery on human skull, anesthesia developed important medical practices- surgery on human skull, anesthesia resources-corn, potatoes, coffee, grain resources-corn, potatoes, coffee, grain created woven baskets, woodwinds created woven baskets, woodwinds

13 Military Expansion attacked, looted villages of neighboring peoples, assessing tribute attacked, looted villages of neighboring peoples, assessing tribute program of permanent conquest, establishing garrisons among settlements of peoples whom they conquered program of permanent conquest, establishing garrisons among settlements of peoples whom they conquered conquered and assimilated people of Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru conquered and assimilated people of Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru gained territory south to the Titicaca Basin, north to present-day Quito making subject peoples of powerful Chancas, Quecha, kingdom of Chimu gained territory south to the Titicaca Basin, north to present-day Quito making subject peoples of powerful Chancas, Quecha, kingdom of Chimu empire reached southernmost extent in central Chile, last vestiges of resistance on southern Perurian coast eliminated empire reached southernmost extent in central Chile, last vestiges of resistance on southern Perurian coast eliminated pushed northern boundary of empire to Ancasmayo River pushed northern boundary of empire to Ancasmayo River

14 Cultural Conflict & Cooperation religious institutions destroyed by Spanish conquerors campaign against idolatry religious institutions destroyed by Spanish conquerors campaign against idolatry Spaniards superior military technology Spaniards superior military technology horses, muskets, cannons, metal helmets, armor, steel swords and lances horses, muskets, cannons, metal helmets, armor, steel swords and lances Incan Bronze Age weapons Incan Bronze Age weapons llamas, clubs, sticks, wooden spears and arrows llamas, clubs, sticks, wooden spears and arrows division & discontent among Inca, Spanish played on old feuds division & discontent among Inca, Spanish played on old feuds disease brought by Europeans disease brought by Europeans survivors felt gods were less powerful than those of conquerors survivors felt gods were less powerful than those of conquerors Incans believed that disasters marked worlds end Incans believed that disasters marked worlds end

15 Today descendants of Inca are present day Quechua-speaking peasants of Andes, constitute about 45% population of Peru descendants of Inca are present day Quechua-speaking peasants of Andes, constitute about 45% population of Peru combine farming, herding w/ simple traditional technology combine farming, herding w/ simple traditional technology rural settlements three kinds: families living in midst of fields, true village communities w/ fields outside of inhabited centers, combination of two rural settlements three kinds: families living in midst of fields, true village communities w/ fields outside of inhabited centers, combination of two towns centers of mestizo (mixed-blood) population towns centers of mestizo (mixed-blood) population Indian community close-knit, families usually intermarrying; much of agricultural work done cooperatively Indian community close-knit, families usually intermarrying; much of agricultural work done cooperatively religion is Roman Catholicism infused w/ pagan hierarchy of spirits and deities religion is Roman Catholicism infused w/ pagan hierarchy of spirits and deities

16 Bibliography Bernhard, Brendan. Pizarro, Orellana, and the Exploration of the Amazon. New York: Chealsea House Publishers, Editors of Time-Life Books. Incas: Lords of Gold and Glory. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, Ellis, Elizabeth Gaynor & Esler, Anthony. World History: Connections to Today. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., Ogburn, Dennis E. The Empire of the Incas. 7 Oct Feb "Inca." Encyclopedia Britannica Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 26 Feb Inca. Grolier Universal Encyclopedia. Volume 5. New York: Grolier Inc., 1965.


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