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Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman

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1 Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman
The Inca Empire Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman

2 Background Empire extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile Inca originated in village of Paqari-tampu, about 15mi south of Cuzco Official language: Quecha Inca: South American Indians ruled Tawantinsuyu (Incan name of empire) that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile

3 Polytheistic religion- Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god
combined features of animism, fetishism, worship of nature gods offered food, clothing, and drink rituals included forms of divination, sacrifice of humans and animals Polytheistic religion- Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god, also included Viracocha-a creator god and culture hero, Apu Illapu-rain god, special attendants “chosen women” People offered food, clothing, drink to guardian spirits; gods linked to forces of nature; each month own festival

4 Events leading to Rise and Fall
1438: Manco Capac established capital at Cuzco (Peru) : Pachacuti gained control of Andean population about 12 million people 1525: Emperor Huayna Capac died of plague; civil war broke out between two sons because no successor named 1532: Spanish arrived in Peru 1535: Empire lost Earliest date assigned to Incan dynastic history 1438; 1000: Manco Capac established capital at Cuzco (Peru) in 12th century : Pachacuti began conquests in early 15th century, within 100 yrs gained control of Andean population about 12 million people 1525, Emperor Huayna Capac died of unknown plague; civil war broke out between two sons because no successor named 1532, when Spanish arrived in Peru By 1535 empire was lost

5 Francisco Pizarro 1527: Pizarro wanted to discover wealth; embarked on his third voyage to the New World Sept. to Nov. 1532: The Cajamarca massacre- Pizarro led 160 Spaniards to Cuzco, slaughtering over 2,000 Inca and injuring 5,000

6 Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold
November 16, 1532: Atahualpa captured by Spaniards, offered gold for his freedom. Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold ($6 million+) baubles, dishes, icons, ornaments, jewelry, & vases, but never released Atahualpa. July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was killed

7 Important People/Positions
Emperors known by various titles, “Sapa Inca”, “Capac Apu”, “Intip Cori”, or “Inca” Manco Capac (1000 CE) Sinchi Roca (1230) Lloque Yupanqui (1260) Mayta Capac (1300) Capac Yupanqui (1320) Inca Roca (1350) Yahuar Huacac (1380) Viracocha Inca (1410) Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui ( ) Topa Inca Yupanqui ( ) Huayna Capac ( ) Huascar ( )  Atahualpa ( )

8 Manco Capac (1022-1107) founder of Inca dynasty
declared himself Sapa Inca, divine son of the Sun skilled warrior and leader chief religious leader exercised absolute power

9 Pachacuti (1438-1471) Usurped throne form brother Inca Urcon
Considered the founder of the Inca Empire Skilled warrior and chief religious leader Claimed he was divine, son of the sun Exercised absolute power

10 Important Positions Local governors responsible for exacting labor tax which could be paid by service in army, on public works, or in agricultural work Coya carried out important religious duties and governed when Sapa Inca absent Nobles ruled provinces w/ chieftains Inca conquered

11 Political Philosophy policy of forced resettlement ensured political stability officials collected taxes, enforced laws, kept records on a quipu (collection of knotted colored strings) which noted dates, events, population, crops use of road system strictly limited to government, military business all land belonged to Inca, crops allotted to specific groups, government took possession of each harvest private property forbidden, crime nonexistent, citizens never starved no written records; oral tradition preserved through generations Policy of forced resettlement of large contingents from each conquered people helped ensure political stability by distributing ethnic groups throughout empire, making organization of revolt difficult Officials collected taxes, enforced laws; specially trained kept records on a quipu (collection of knotted colored strings) which noted dates, events, population, crops Use of road system strictly limited to government, military business; a well-organized relay service carried messages in form of knotted cords at rate of 150mi a day; Network greatly facilitated Spanish conquest of Inca Empire Collective Farming: All land belonged to Inca, crops allotted to specific groups, government took possession of each harvest Private property forbidden, crime nonexistent, citizens never went hungry No written records; history known chiefly from oral tradition preserved through generations, official “memorizers” Inca tolerant of conquered people’s native religions

12 Economic Developments
constructed aquaducts, cities, temples, fortresses, short rock tunnels, suspension bridges, 2250mi road system metal works of alloy, copper, tin, bronze, silver gold developed important medical practices- surgery on human skull, anesthesia resources-corn, potatoes, coffee, grain created woven baskets, woodwinds Engineers and architects constructed aquaducts, cities, temples, and fortresses Inca built vast network of roads; comprised two north-south roads, one running along coast about 2250 mi, other inland along Andes for a similar distance, w/ many interconnecting links Many short rock tunnels, vine-supported suspension bridges constructed Metalworking: best metal works in Americas; worked w/ alloy, copper, tin, bronze, silver gold; made statues of gods/goddesses Medical Advances: developed important medical practices- surgery on human skull, procedures close to use of modern antiseptics, anesthesia Resources: corn, potatoes, coffee, grain Art/Music/Architecture: woven baskets, metal ornaments, woodwinds, stone buildings

13 Military Expansion attacked, looted villages of neighboring peoples, assessing tribute program of permanent conquest, establishing garrisons among settlements of peoples whom they conquered conquered and assimilated people of Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru gained territory south to the Titicaca Basin, north to present-day Quito making subject peoples of powerful Chancas, Quecha, kingdom of Chimu empire reached southernmost extent in central Chile, last vestiges of resistance on southern Perurian coast eliminated pushed northern boundary of empire to Ancasmayo River Conquered and assimilated people of Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru Under Mayta Capac, Inca expanded by attacking, looting villages of neighboring peoples, assessing tribute Under Capac Yupanqui, Inca 1st extended influence beyond Cuzco valley Under Viracocha Inca the 8th, began program of permanent conquest, establishing garrisons among settlements of peoples whom they conquered Under Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, Inca conquered territory south to the Titicaca Basin, north to present-day Quito making subject peoples of powerful Chancas, Quecha, kingdom of Chimu Under Topa Inca Yupanqui, empire reached southernmost extent in central Chile, last vestiges of resistance on southern Perurian coast eliminated Huanya Capac pushed northern boundary of empire to Ancasmayo River before dying in epidemic, may have been brought by eastern tribe that picked it up from Spanish at La Plata

14 Cultural Conflict & Cooperation
religious institutions destroyed by Spanish conquerors’ campaign against idolatry Spaniards superior military technology horses, muskets, cannons, metal helmets, armor, steel swords and lances Incan Bronze Age weapons llamas, clubs, sticks, wooden spears and arrows division & discontent among Inca, Spanish played on old feuds disease brought by Europeans survivors felt gods were less powerful than those of conquerors Incans believed that disasters marked world’s end

15 Today descendants of Inca are present day Quechua-speaking peasants of Andes, constitute about 45% population of Peru combine farming, herding w/ simple traditional technology rural settlements three kinds: families living in midst of fields, true village communities w/ fields outside of inhabited centers, combination of two towns centers of mestizo (mixed-blood) population Indian community close-knit, families usually intermarrying; much of agricultural work done cooperatively religion is Roman Catholicism infused w/ pagan hierarchy of spirits and deities

16 Bibliography Bernhard, Brendan. Pizarro, Orellana, and the Exploration of the Amazon. New York: Chealsea House Publishers, 1991. Editors of Time-Life Books. Incas: Lords of Gold and Glory. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1992. Ellis, Elizabeth Gaynor & Esler, Anthony. World History: Connections to Today. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2001. Ogburn, Dennis E. The Empire of the Incas. 7 Oct Feb <http://www.millville.org/workshops_f/acker_inca/ inca.htm> "Inca." Encyclopedia Britannica Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 26 Feb <http://www.britannica.com/eb/ article?tocId= >. “Inca.” Grolier Universal Encyclopedia. Volume 5. New York: Grolier Inc., 1965.


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