Presentation on theme: "The French and Indian War. European Competition Early on, European countries often competed with each other for control of land and natural resources."— Presentation transcript:
European Competition Early on, European countries often competed with each other for control of land and natural resources. England, Spain and France all claimed parts of the North American continent.
French vs English As you will read today, this competition for land and resources often led to war. Today, the conflict (war) we are learning about is between France, England and their colonies here in America.
Here is the disputed area France and England argued over who controlled the area between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians
The French Explore the North American Interior By the late 1600s most French colonists moved into the interior (center) of North America. Meanwhile, the English colonists settled mostly along the eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
A Natural Barrier The Appalachian mountains created a natural barrier (block) for the 13 colonies. They prevented the colonies from easily expanding.
French Claim Interior The French claimed the territory of Louisiana that at the time, stretched between the Ohio River Valley to the Rocky Mountains. We claim everything from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains
Who Were the French Settlers?. France began to build forts (outposts for trade and defense) along the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. Many of the French settlers were fur traders and priests.
Trade with Native Americans The French were much more respectful to the Native Americans and treated them as business partners. Native Americans often brought animal furs to the French forts and exchanged them for metal and guns.
Native American Alliance with the French Over time, the French and the Native Americans formed a close bond. Not only did the French traders trade with the Native Americans, many often lived among them and married Indian women. Because of this trade and intermarrying, the alliance (partnership) between the French and Native tribes grew very strong.
France and England Declare War! In 1689, over on the continent of Europe, France and England declared war on each other. As one would expect, the French and the English colonists here in America also began to fight.
Claim to the Land As time went on both France and England began to worry about losing their claim on the land here in North America. Neither one wanted the other to take over.
Native American Allies Soon the French began asking their Native American allies (partners) to join them in their fight against the British.
Colonists Begin to Fight After years conflict between France and England, in 1754 a war over the control of land here in North America began. This war between the French and the English would become known as the French and Indian War. The French and Indian War was a battle for control of North America
French and Indian War The French and Indian war consisted of France and their Native American allies vs. England and its 13 colonies.
Conflict over the Ohio River Valley The French and Indian War all began when British fur traders and colonists began moving into the Ohio River Valley, an area the French and Indians had been controlling for years.
Attack the Invaders! The French were determined to protect the Ohio River Valley. To show the British settlers they were not welcome in the area, French and Indian troops attacked and burned British forts and nearby British villages.
No way France! This is Our Land! This attack greatly upset the English colonies. England believed they claimed the land not France.
Speaking to the French In a response to the attacks, the colony of Virginia decided to send in a group of soldiers lead by young George Washington, to tell the French “Its time to leave.”
George Washington Washington reported back that the French commander told him and his group of English troops, “ No Englishman had the right to trade upon the Ohio River Waters and that he would take every Englishman prisoner who attempted to use the waters of the Ohio.” The French will take any English man who uses the river as a prisoner
Seven Years War Angered by the response of the French commander, the governor of Virginia sent 40 men to build a fort anyway at the head (start) of the Ohio River. The French and Native Americans seized and destroyed the partially built fort. The French and Indian War had begun.
Seven Years War The French and Indian War soon became part of what is known in Europe as the Seven Years War (1756- 1763). This was a worldwide struggle for control and domination (power) between France and Great Britain that lasted 7 years.
Albany Plan of Union The British colonies and Native Americans from the Iroquois nation planned to meet in the Middle Colony of Albany, New York. The English colonists wanted to discuss forming an alliance with the Iroquois. However, the Iroquois would not commit to this alliance (partnership) with the British. We will think about it Will you join us?
Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin, who loved the union (togetherness) of the six Iroquois nations, suggested that the 13 colonies join together for defense. He called his plan the Albany Plan of Union. As colonies we must join together
“Join or Die” Benjamin Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union is important because it was the first ever formal proposal to unite the colonies. He told the colonies “join or die”
England knew the colonists couldn’t fight the entire war on their own. They would need help. England began sending over English troops, supplies and money, lots of money. England’s Financial Support
In the late summer, Britain attacked New France (Canada) at it capital city of Quebec. Within a year the British captured both Quebec and Montreal. With both cites successfully conquered, all Canada was now in British hands. British Take Quebec
Treaty of Paris After losing the cities of Quebec and Montreal, France knew it had to surrender. When the Seven Years war ended in 1763, Britain had won! The two nations (Britain and France) got together in Paris and signed a peace treaty called the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War
Treaty if Paris 1763 According to the Treaty of Paris, England now claimed all the land in North America east of the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean.
The British Take Over French Forts After the French left, the British took over their forts. Unlike the French, the British refused to give supplies to the Native Americans. British settlers also moved across the Appalachian mountains and began violently taking Native American land.
Pontiac’s Rebellion Angry at the British, the Native American groups responded by attacking settlers and destroying almost every British fort west of the Appalachian Mountains. This revolt was called Pontiac’s Rebellion.
British settlers reacted to Pontiac’s Rebellion with equal violence. They began killing countless Indians, even those who had not attacked them. The British React with Violence
British officers came up with a horrible plan. They invited Pontiac and the other Delaware Indian leaders to a meeting “to discuss peace” and then gave them small pox infected blankets as “gifts of peace”. Small Pox Blankets
Soon, a deadly outbreak of smallpox spread through the Native American tribes. The Native Americans were forced to give up their fight.
Proclamation of 1763 The British government said protecting the colonists from Native American attacks was too expensive. So in 1763, the British issued what they called the Proclamation Line of 1763. This Proclamation Line told the colonists that they were not to settle west of the Appalachian Mts
What We Can’t Cross the Mountains The colonists were angry. They thought they had won the right to settle the Ohio River Valley after the French and Indian War! How dare the king tell them they can move west of the Mountains. They are saying we can’t settle past the Appalachian Mountains That’s crazy we just won the war
Expensive War!!! However, the French and Indian war was super expensive for England. England began to pass a series of taxes to pay for the war. However, many colonists refused to pay. The British (English) government was angry at the colonists, who didn’t want to pay for their own defense. This conflict would soon lead to the war for American Independence.