Presentation on theme: "Objectives o Trace the changes in France’s government from 1789 to 1815 o Describe the Reign of Terror o Identify Napoleon and analyze how he affected."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives o Trace the changes in France’s government from 1789 to 1815 o Describe the Reign of Terror o Identify Napoleon and analyze how he affected France and Europe
King Louis XVI o Absolute monarchy – the king had complete power o Called “Louis, by Grace of God, King of France” – believed it was his divine right to rule (believed that his authority came from God) o Unhappiness with this system was leading the people of France closer to a revolution
How are divine right and absolute monarchy related? o the idea that monarch’s power to rule comes from God helps to justify the ruler’s actions
1789 France: The Three Estates (Social Classes) o First Estate: Catholic clergy (people who perform religious services) o Second Estate: Aristocracy (members of noble families) o Third Estate: 98% of the population (merchants, lawyers, craft workers, peasants )
The different members of the Third Estate had two things in common: o paid taxes o had no say in how they were governed
Recap: Who made up the first estate? Second? Third? o First: clergy o Second: nobles o Third: 98% of the population – everyone else
Which of the estates had law-making power? o None of them – that power lay in the hands of the monarch
Who influenced the Third Estate French people in the late 1700s? o THE UNITED STATES!
What happened in America in the late 1700s that so greatly influenced the French? o The American Revolution o One French woman said: “The American cause seemed our own; we were proud of their victories, we cried at their defeats, we tore down bulletins and read them in our houses. None of use reflected on the danger that the New World could give to the Old.” France had given millions of dollars to support the American colonies in their war against the British.
The King needed more money… …so he taxed the Third AND Second Estate o How do you think the nobles felt when they were suddenly taxed? o They REFUSED! o Demanded a meeting of the Estates General
The Estates General o a group made up of representatives from each of the three estates o met near the king’s palace in Versailles o Third Estate wanted equal rights o began writing a constitution and formed a new lawmaking body called the National Assembly o THE FRENCH REVOLUTION HAD BEGUN!
What unexpected consequence grew out of the meeting of the Estates General? o The Third Estate demanded political power and set out to get it by writing a constitution, forming the National Assembly, a new government body, thus leading to the Revolution
Storming the Bastille o On July 14, 1789, 800 people gathered in Paris and marched to the big stone prison fortress called the Bastille o hoped to gather weapons there o 98 people died, but the marchers captured the Bastille o “Bastille Day” is still celebrated every July 14 - it showed an army that did not support the king
End of the Monarchy o August 1789 – The National Assembly issued a statement called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen o the Declaration said all men were “born and remain free and equal in rights” o LIBERTY! EQUALITY! BROTHERHOOD!
How would you contrast France’s government before 1789 with the spirit of the Revolution? o Before: absolute ruling power in the hands of a monarch o After: ordinary people began believing in liberty and equality
The Declaration of Independence (United States) VERSUS The Declaration of the Rights of Man (France) Similarities: o Both were created by movements that started because of high and unfair taxes o Both were created by rebellious groups that were not officially part of any government (America- Sons of Liberty; France- National Assembly) o Both were influenced by the Enlightenment ideas (freedom of speech, equality, freedom of speech, etc.) o Both complained about same things (high taxes, unfair tax/ taxation without representation)
The Declaration of Independence (United States) VERSUS The Declaration of the Rights of Man (France) Differences: o America- Wanted to break away from Great Britain France- Wanted to change government o America- Wanted to create a separate and independent government for itself France-Wanted to redefine current government o America- Emphasized freedoms and being independent more France- emphasized equality and fairness more o America- America would be its own nation with its own government (does not say how) France- Stated specifically how their government should be run or changed o America- General statement saying that America would be independent with rights GB did not allow France- specific statement on how government should be run
New Rulers in France o At first, the king was still the leader of the government, but the National Assembly had most of the power o King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette tried to escape after approving the Declaration o Disguised themselves as tourists o They were caught, the monarchy was abolished, and France became a REPUBLIC
The Reign of Terror o Assembly angered many by taking land away from the Catholic Church o Maximilien Robespierre, a Revolution leader, became the most powerful man in the new government o Waged war against enemies of the revolution by EXECUTING SUSPECTS o Time of cruelty = Reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror Continued… o Robespierre’s weapon was the GUILLOTINE (a machine with a steel blade that chopped off people’s heads) o King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed by the guillotine in 1793 o Aristocrats and nobles were targeted for death, but no one was safe o When the Reign of Terror ended in 1794, 25,000 French citizens had been killed
What would you say was the cause of the bloodshed? o the terrible anger of the Third Estate, people who had been oppressed under absolute rule
The Revolution Ends o The army gained more power o NAPOLEON BONAPARTE became extremely popular o Crowned himself (at age 26) Emperor Napoleon I o Barely 10 years after the execution of Louis XVI, France had another absolute ruler o The French Republic was OVER.
Why it Matters o Napoleon expanded French power across Europe (Holland, Germany, Italy, Belgium) o France had a monarch, but the three estates were gone forever o Napoleon’s empire collapsed in 1815 o “Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood” sparked freedom movements around the world What a nice guy, eh??? Don’t worry France, it eventually gets better.
Checking for Understanding o Who made up the Three Estates? o Why was a meeting of the Estates General called in 1789? o List three reasons for the discontent among many French people before the Revolution. o What effects did the American Revolution have on France?