2 Outline of Presentation Census HistoryCensus QuestionnaireCensus GeographyCensus DataAmerican FactFinder
3 Census History Survey of the United States population every 10 years Mandated by ConstitutionPurpose: reapportionment of 435 seats in the House of Representatives
4 Census Questions Vary Over Time Total population, race, sex in 1790(650 enumerators counted 3,929,214 people at a cost of $44,337)Physical and Mental Disabilities in 1830Income first asked in 1940Televisions surveyed,Detailed ancestry beginning 1980Multiple races and grandparents as caregivers in 2000(500,000 enumerators counted 281,421,906 people at a cost of $4.5 billion)
5 Census Questions Vary Over Time Reflects changes in societyIn 1990 and 2000 Congress wanted to reduce paperworkGrid of questions,
6 Practical Applications for Census Data Public health professionals identify vulnerablepopulations for chronic diseaseUrban planners identify zoning, housing, sewage, and transportation issuesSocial workers conduct needs assessments forservices to the elderly, poor, children
7 Practical Applications for Census Data Marketers target likely buyersPoliticians use the census to determine votingdistricts and to assess constituent interestsEnvironmentalists map the spread of toxic effluentsand population densities
8 Practical Applications for Census Data Occupation by age, race, and sex for equalemployment opportunityLibrarians base collection development policy oncommunity characteristicsMayors use numbers to applyfor federal grants.Undercount costs moneyIdentify communities ofinterest or needCENSUS 2000 SHORT FORM (SF1) HISPANICS AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL POPULATION
9 2000 Questionnaires 100% and Sample AgeSexRace (Multiple)Hispanic originHousehold relationshipOccupied v. vacant housing unitsOwner v. renter occupied housing
10 Primary Uses of Short Form Data Race and sex for single years of age to 99; three groups after 100Most detail by race (250 groups total)
11 Race Groups in 2000 White Black or African-American American Indian or Alaskan NativeAsianHawaiian or Pacific IslanderOtherTwo or More Races(Based on Self-Identification)
12 Household Relationships Relationship to HouseholderSpouseChildStepchildGrandchildBrother/SisterParentNon-relativeUnmarried partner is separate category
13 2000 Sample Questionnaire (generally 1/6 of population) Marital status, housing value and rent (100% in 1990)Grandparents as caregivers (new)AncestryLanguageCountry of originSchool enrollment and educational attainment (and dropouts)
14 2000 Sample Questionnaire Employment Industry and occupation Transportation to and place of workDisability and mental illnessVeteran statusIncome and poverty
15 American Community Survey (ACS) Started in 1996 to address 2-3 year lag in availability of decennial census dataAnnual sample of 3,000,000 households (long form)Decennial census will still be conducted, but will only include short formWill enhance the usefulness of the census for planning effortsSome concerns about sampling error and undercountsBetween 1940 and 2000 the undercount of African Americans was much greater than non-African AmericansMen also tend to be undercounted more than women
16 Census GeographyThis diagram shows the hierarchical relationships between geographic types.For example, a line extends from states to counties because a state is comprised of many counties, and a single county can never cross a state boundary.
17 If no line joins two geographic types, then an absolute and predictable relationship does not exist between them.For example, many places are confined to one county. However, some places extend over more than one county, such as New York City.Therefore, an absolute hierarchical relationship does not exist between counties and places, and any tabulation involving both these geographic types may represent only a part of one county or one place.Census Geography
18 Census GeographyNotice that many lines radiate from blocks, indicating that most geographic types can be described as a collection of blocks, the smallest geographic unit for which the Census Bureau reports data.However, only two of these lines also describe the path by which a block is uniquely named. That is, the path through the Block Group.
20 Urban Areas Urbanized = Densely settled area, 50,000+ Urban Cluster = Densely settled area,,000; can be outside metro area
21 Metropolitan Statistical Area Central city of 50,000 or moreIts own county, andSurrounding counties with heavy commuting patternsEntire counties belong to MSAs
22 MSA Definitions This is very complicated Just consult the definitions when you need them
23 Census TractsAreas of about 4000 peopleApproximate neighborhoods
24 Block Group Two – eight block groups per tract Smallest area for sample data
25 Census Data Sources American FactFinder A web-based tool developed by the Census Bureau to provide census data on the WebWill probably suffice for all but the most complex analysesProvides useful first glance at the data before you construct your own analysis
26 Sources U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov American FactFinder Census ToolkitCensus TutorialsNumeric and Spatial Data Services Library, University of MichiganCommunity and Regional Planning Program of The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, “Working with 2000 Census Data in ArcGIS,”Peters, A. and H. MacDonald Unlocking the Census with GIS. ESRI Press.Redlands, CA.