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Womb: utero (materno) Why: perché, per quale ragione, per quale motivo, i motivi per cui With a condition: chi soffre di disturbi Hug: abbraccio A study.

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Presentation on theme: "Womb: utero (materno) Why: perché, per quale ragione, per quale motivo, i motivi per cui With a condition: chi soffre di disturbi Hug: abbraccio A study."— Presentation transcript:

1 Womb: utero (materno) Why: perché, per quale ragione, per quale motivo, i motivi per cui With a condition: chi soffre di disturbi Hug: abbraccio A study in…: Uno studio condotto su… fragile X syndrome: sindrome dellX fragile (FRAX) Wiring: insieme delle connessioni Part of the brain: area cerebrale That responds: preposta, coinvolta Is formed late: un ritardo nella formazione Hypersensitive: ipersensibile,

2 Key stage: livello chiave Effective: efficace To interfere in: interferire con fragile X mental retardation protein: FMRP the protein directs the formation: la proteina induce/presiede la formazione To be affected: essere colpito leading known cause: a quanto è dato sapere, è la causa principale Mental impairment: menomazione mentale Mood swings: turbe/variazioni dellumore Tactile defensiveness: atteggiamento tattile difensivo Do not make eye contact: evitano di incrociare lo sguardo Touch: contatto Sound: rumore, suono

3 Delays at crucial points during the development of the brain in the womb may explain why people with a condition linked to autism do not like hugs. A study in mice with fragile X syndrome found wiring in the part of the brain that responds to touch is formed late. The findings may help explain why people with the condition are hypersensitive to physical contact, the researchers wrote in Neuron. It also points to key stages when treatment could be most effective. Fragile X syndrome is caused by a mutant gene in the X chromosome that interferes in the production of a protein called fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP).

4 Under normal circumstances, the protein directs the formation of other proteins that build synapses in the brain. Boys are usually more severely affected with the condition - which is the leading known cause of autism - because they have only one X chromosome. In addition to mental impairment, hyperactivity, emotional and behavioural problems, anxiety and mood swings, people with fragile X also show what doctors call "tactile defensiveness", which means they do not make eye contact and do not like physical contact and are hypersensitive to touch and sound.

5 Synapse Synapse: the site of functional apposition between neurons, where an impulse is transmitted from one to another, usually by a chemical neurotransmitter released by the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap to bind with receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane and cause electrical changes in that neuron (depolarization/excitation or hyperpolarization/inhibition).

6 Diagram of three synapses. Nerve impulse is indicated by arrows, showing that the direction of passage is from the terminal arborization (TA) or nerve endings of the axon of one neuron to the dendrites (D) of another neuron.


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