Recategorization Recategorization = translation strategy which consists in changing the grammatical category of the element keeping at the same time the.
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1 RecategorizationRecategorization = translation strategy which consists in changing the grammatical category of the element keeping at the same time the equivalence of meaning.Keep refrigerated = Conservare al fresco, conservare in frigorifero.From = mittente.
2 When is recategorization used? The syntactic structures of the source language may differ from the syntactic structures of the target language. Recategorization becomes advisable or mandatory when the structures of the two languages either are different or have different levels of frequency. The application of this strategy results in a modulation of the text. Among other results, this modulation can produce nominalization or denominalization.Nominalization = verb or adjective in the ST → noun in the TT.I’d rather exercise than eat too much = Preferisco l’esercizio al troppo cibo
3 Denominalization = noun in the ST → verb in the TT: For patrons only = riservato ai clientiRecategorization implies a change in grammatical category. A more general change is brought about by transposition, where other elements may be changed.Recategorization may be internal (within a given language), or may be a result of the passage from SL to TL.
4 Non credo che verrò Credo che non verrò Non penso che sia vero Penso che non sia veroDirei che è falsoSecondo me è falso
5 Recategorization in translation No smoking → ……………….No waiting → ……………….No parking → ……………….No entry → ……………….
6 Requests (oral/written) Requests are a typical example of different attitudes in the formulation:Shut the door, pleaseKeep the window shut, pleaseWill you please shut the windowOf course, different formulas can be used in the SL too, what we have to take into account is their original formulation and our approach in translation. How do we behave when translating?
7 Denominalization As time goes by Colloquial: Man mano che il tempo passaBut in case of denominalization:Con il passare del tempo.Notice the function of the infinitive: con il passareand analyze the effect it produces.At the end of the dayColloquial: Alla fine del giorno/della giornataSul finire del giorno.Here too, analyze the effect produced by the use of the infinitive. Is it a verb? What impression does this form convey?
8 Recategorization: adjective+noun → noun+ suffix use of suffixation (English→Italian) A nasty wordA nasty lookA nasty temperA light windA tiny boxA big man
9 Recategorization and sentence structure Though their life was modest they believed in eating wellNonostante vivessero modestamente amavano tener buona tavolaThere was no sign of Gabriel and his wifeGabriel glanced at herAncora non si erano visti né Gabriel né la moglie
10 Recategorization and sentence structure Gabriel glanced at herGabriel le gettò un’occhiataListening to the skirts that sweptIntento al fruscio delle vestiIt had gone off in splendid styleEra sempre riuscito splendidamente
11 Recategorization and sentence structure For an Arab owned herNe era proprietario un arabo
12 As the buttons of his overcoat slipped with a squeaking noise through the snow-stiffened frieze, a cold fragrant air from out-of-doors escaped from the crevices and folds.Via via che i bottoni uscivano scricchiolando fuor dal tessuto, la fragranza fredda e pungente dell’aria esterna sfuggiva dalle pieghe e dalle aperture del mantello.
13 snow frieze (tessuto di lana morbido e soffice) irrigidito stiffenedsnowfrieze(tessuto di lana morbido e soffice)irrigiditoMorbida e sofficefredda
14 Adjective and adverb Nervous, the man opened the parcel Nervous = adverb↓Nervously, the man opened the parcelNervous= nervously = nervoso = nervosamente (?)
15 Recategorizing adverbs in translation Aunt Kate frowned severely =Gabriel laughed nervously =She said, almost testily =It had gone off in splendid style =
16 Recategorization of adverbs Aunt Kate frowned severely = Zia Kate aggrottava le sopracciglia severaGabriel laughed nervously = Gabriel rise nervosoShe said, almost testily = Disse in tono un po’ bruscoIt had gone off in splendid style = Era sempre riuscito splendidamente
17 Sentence structuresentence structure = order in which the elements appear. This order is common but by no means fixed. It is a principle of sentence organization that what is contextually familiar comes early (relatively early) while the part which has to be emphasized or which conveys the greatest information is given the prominence of end focus.The normal string is SVO (subject-verb-object)The emphatic string stresses other elements of the sentence.Both strings may be used, in English and in Italian.
18 Translators in the European Parliament must meet the highest standards of accuracy in their work and ensure consistency with a very large corpus of documents.The highest standards of accuracy must be ensured (by translators) when working for the European Parliament.Consistency must be ensured when working with a very large corpus of documents.
19 All documents are checked and proofread by translators before delivery. Translators check and proofread all documents before delivery.The European Council has decided to relaunch the Lisbon Strategy through a partnership for growth and jobs.The Lisbon Strategy has been relaunched by the European Council through a partnership for growth and jobs.It is through a partnership for growth and jobs that the European council has decided to relaunch the Lisbon Strategy.
20 English vs Italian Use of subject pronoun in Italian Use of subject pronoun in EnglishI’ll think about itCi penso io Ci penseròShe said she would comeHa detto che sarebbe venutaI can’t tell himNon posso dirglielo/Non glielo posso dire
21 Sentence structureAgreement of verb with subject. Different rules in English and in ItalianNotional concord (agreement of verb with subject according to the idea of number rather than actual presence of grammatical marker for that idea)The government have passed four billsItalian:……..
22 Sentence structureProximity principle in concord (agreement of the verb with noun or pronoun closely preceding it, sometimes in preference to agreement with headword of subject)No one except his closest friends agree with himEither my wife or I am goingItalian:
23 Sentence structure Attributive adjectives premodify nouns in English. And what about Italian?Le vecchie tubature hanno cedutoLe tubature vecchie hanno cedutoUn’esperienza unica (A unique/An exceptional experience)Un’unica esperienza (Only one experience)
24 Sentence structure Attributive adjectives premodify nouns in English. But what about Italian?Le vecchie tubature hanno cedutoLe tubature vecchie hanno cedutoUn’esperienza unica (A unique/An exceptional experience)Un’unica esperienza (Only one experience)