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Presentation on theme: "Unemployment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unemployment

2 Aims and Objectives Aim: Understand types of unemployment Objectives:
Define 2 measures of unemployment Explain current trends in UK & EU Analyse causes of unemployment Evaluate social costs of unemployment

3 Starter

4 Unemployment Number of people willing and able to work but unable to find work. 2.67 million 8.4%

5 LFS & Claimant Count LFS
Includes people who have looked for work in the past month and are able to start work in two weeks. Claimant Count Includes people able to claim JSA.

6 Equilibrium Unemployment
ALF = aggregate labour force of a nation. ASL = aggregate supply willing to work at W1. Unemployment = difference between ALF and ASL. Q2-Q1 RWR ASL ALF W1 ADL Q2 Q1 EMPLOYMENT Re-create on your whiteboards and explain.

7 Replacement Ratio In the case of a low paid worker loosing their job the replacement ratio is one factor influencing time spent searching for a new job. Replacement Ratio = disposable income out of work disposable income in work High level of benefits disincentives employment Ratio of 1 means receive same on benefits as would if employed. High ratio = unemployment trap

8 Replacement Ratio Age Range JSA Maximum Amount Under 25 £53.45pw
Over 25 £67.50pw Couple £105.95pw Beauty Technician Job – Barton Le Clay £6.08ph 16 hours per week Calculate Replacement Ratio £53.45/£97.28 = 0.55 The benefits received when unemployed 'replace' 55% of the worker's disposable income when in work.

9 Replacement Ratio Age Range JSA Maximum Amount Under 25 £53.45pw
Over 25 £67.50pw Couple £105.95pw Over 25 Care Assistant Dunstable £8.07ph 25 hours pw Calculate Replacement Ratio £67.50/£ = 0.33 The benefits received when unemployed 'replace' 33% of the worker's disposable income when in work. For which job is there more incentive to remain on benefits and unemployed?

10 Types of Unemployment Task
Can you remember the five types of unemployment in an economy?

11 Seasonal Unemployment
Unemployment from seasonal jobs, e.g. Fruit picking Technological Unemployment Unemployment due to technological advancements. Structural Unemployment Unemployment due to declining industries such as mining or ship building Frictional Unemployment People who are unemployed between jobs Cyclical Unemployment General unemployment which follows the business cycle

12 Cyclical Unemployment
PRICE LEVEL Arises during downturn/recession Fall in AD actual GDP lies below potential GDP – negative output gap Labour derived demand Unemployment rises AD1 LRAS AD2 P1 Y2 Y1 REAL GDP

13 Classical Unemployment
Real Wage Wage rate increases More workers supply themselves QS Firms demand QD Unemployment QS-QD ASL W2 W1 ADL Q1 QD QS Employment

14 Armies of the Unemployed
What may be the social costs in the EU of high unemployment?

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