Presentation on theme: "Unemployment. Aims and Objectives Aim: Understand types of unemployment Objectives: Define 2 measures of unemployment Explain current trends in."— Presentation transcript:
Aims and Objectives Aim: Understand types of unemployment Objectives: Define 2 measures of unemployment Explain current trends in UK & EU Analyse causes of unemployment Evaluate social costs of unemployment
Number of people willing and able to work but unable to find work. k k 2.67 million 8.4% Unemployment
LFS & Claimant Count LFS Includes people who have looked for work in the past month and are able to start work in two weeks. Claimant Count Includes people able to claim JSA.
Equilibrium Unemployment ALF = aggregate labour force of a nation. ASL = aggregate supply willing to work at W1. Unemployment = difference between ALF and ASL. Q2-Q1 ASLALF W1 ADL Q1 Q2 EMPLOYMENT RWR Re-create on your whiteboards and explain.
Replacement Ratio In the case of a low paid worker loosing their job the replacement ratio is one factor influencing time spent searching for a new job. Replacement Ratio = disposable income out of work disposable income in work High level of benefits disincentives employment Ratio of 1 means receive same on benefits as would if employed. High ratio = unemployment trap
Replacement Ratio Age RangeJSA Maximum Amount Under 25£53.45pw Over 25£67.50pw Couple£105.95pw Beauty Technician Job – Barton Le Clay £6.08ph 16 hours per week Calculate Replacement Ratio £53.45/£97.28 = 0.55 The benefits received when unemployed 'replace' 55% of the worker's disposable income when in work.
Replacement Ratio Age RangeJSA Maximum Amount Under 25£53.45pw Over 25£67.50pw Couple£105.95pw Over 25 Care Assistant Dunstable £8.07ph 25 hours pw Calculate Replacement Ratio £67.50/£ = 0.33 The benefits received when unemployed 'replace' 33% of the worker's disposable income when in work. For which job is there more incentive to remain on benefits and unemployed?
Types of Unemployment Task Can you remember the five types of unemployment in an economy?
Structural Unemployment Unemployment due to declining industries such as mining or ship building Frictional Unemployment People who are unemployed between jobs Cyclical Unemployment General unemployment which follows the business cycle Seasonal Unemployment Unemployment from seasonal jobs, e.g. Fruit picking Technological Unemployment Unemployment due to technological advancements.
Cyclical Unemployment Arises during downturn/recession Fall in AD actual GDP lies below potential GDP – negative output gap Labour derived demand Unemployment rises AD2 LRAS P1 AD1 Y1 Y2 PRICE LEVEL REAL GDP
Classical Unemployment Wage rate increases More workers supply themselves QS Firms demand QD Unemployment QS-QD ASL ADL Real Wage Employment Q1 QD QS W1 W2
Armies of the Unemployed What may be the social costs in the EU of high unemployment?