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Team Building Insight on Team Building in Health Care Settings.

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Presentation on theme: "Team Building Insight on Team Building in Health Care Settings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Team Building Insight on Team Building in Health Care Settings

2 Learning Objectives Define team and team building. Identify factors that should be considered in selecting the right team. Define the characteristics of effective teams. Describe team development phases. Identify barriers affecting teamwork. Understand the impact of teamwork on healthcare professionals, patients, & healthcare delivery systems. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

3 What is a Team? Team: Two or more people working interdependently towards a common goal. Getting a group of people together does not make a “team.” A team develops products that are the result of the team's collective effort and involves synergy. Synergy is the property where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

4 What is a Team? Team Building: The process of gathering the right people and getting them to work together for the benefit of a project. Norms :Acceptable standards of behaviors within a group that are shared by group members. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

5 Selecting the Right Team for a Project Team size. Overall team composition. Team member selection. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

6 Team Size Recommended size is a team of 3-12 members. A team of 5-7 members is the best. Small teams work faster and tend to produce results quickly, but there is less diversity. Teams greater than 7 or 8 members require an expert. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

7 Team Composition Ensure that the team have a wide range of experience and skills Consider members who have different abilities such as: Technical expertise and skills. Administrative skills (e.g. problem-solving & decision-making skills). Interpersonal and communication skills. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

8 Team Member Selection & Exclusion When selecting team members, give preference to individuals who are: Concerned about & committed to the common purpose and goals (interested in the project) Enthusiastic & Optimistic. Creative, flexible, proactive, & open minded. Can devote time to the initiative. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

9 Team Member Selection & Exclusion Good team players: Work effectively as a member of a team. Respect the values, beliefs and opinions of others. Relate to & interact effectively with individuals & groups. Willing to cooperate to reach common goals. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

10 Characteristics of Effective Teams 1.Organizational structure. 2.Individual contribution. 3.Team processes. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

11 Characteristics of Effective Teams Organizational structure Clear purpose Appropriate culture Specified taskDistinct roles Suitable leadership Relevant members Adequate resources Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

12 Characteristics of Effective Teams Organizational Structure: 1)Clear Purpose Each organization should have a clear mission & vision. Clear & measurable team goals could be derived from the mission statement. As team members participated in setting & prioritizing goals, they better understood the task requirements & were more motivated to achieve them.

13 Characteristics of Effective Teams 2) Appropriate Culture Organizational culture needs to transform shared values into behavioral norms. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

14 Characteristics of Effective Teams 3)Specified Tasks: Tasks should make tangible contribution to the organization & should be sufficiently motivating. 4)Distinct Roles: Roles need to be flexible to accommodate individual differences & personal development. Individuals should be able to negotiate their roles to perform unique & meaningful tasks. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

15 Characteristics of Effective Teams 5) Suitable Leadership: Leaders need to maintain a strategic focus to support the organization’s vision, facilitate goal setting, educate, & evaluate achievements. When leaders delegate responsibility appropriately, team members become more confident & autonomous in their work. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

16 Characteristics of Effective Teams 6) Relevant Members: Teams require the right number of members with the appropriate mix and diversity of tasks & interpersonal skills. A balance between homogeneity and heterogeneity of members’ skills, interests & backgrounds is Preferred. 7) Adequate Resources: Organizations need to provide teams with adequate financial resources, administrative & technical support & professional education. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

17 Characteristics of Effective Teams Individual Contribution Self- knowledge trustCommitmentFlexibility Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

18 Characteristics of Effective Teams Individual Contribution: 1) Self Knowledge: Individuals need to be independent & self-aware before they can be satisfied, productive & respectful of others. 2) Trust: The ability to trust originates from self-knowledge & competence. Trust must be slowly built up across team members who have different competencies, assumptions & priorities, through developing confidence in each other’s competence & reliability.

19 Characteristics of Effective Teams 3) Commitment: Commitment to a unified set of team goals & values provides direction & motivation for individual members. Further, commitment is increased by & increases feelings of responsibility for & participation in the team’s work. 4) Flexibility: Ability to maintain an open attitude, accommodate different personal values & be receptive to the ideas of others.

20 Characteristics of Effective Teams Team processes CommunicationCohesion Conflict management Social relationships Performance Feedback Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

21 characteristics of Effective Teams Team Process: 1) Communication As a major form of communication, meetings need to have clear agendas, & be managed so that all members contribute. In addition, clear two-way communication channels across team boundaries & with the organization ensures the relevance of the team’s functioning. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

22 Characteristics of Effective Teams 2) Cohesion Team cohesion acknowledges members’ personal attraction to the team & the task. Members cooperate interdependently around the team’s task in order to meet team goals Socially, members feel as if they belong & want to remain with the team for future tasks. Cohesion can be fostered through small team sizes, similar attitudes & physical proximity. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

23 Characteristics of Effective Teams 3) Conflict Management: * Team conflict can source both creativity & destruction. For teams to value creative contributions & promote effective problem solving, diversity needs careful management. Destructive team conflict often has an interpersonal basis in work role or organizational factors. Mickan S, Rodger S.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.

24 Characteristics of Effective Teams 4 ) Social Relationships: Good social relationships maintain effective teams. Personally, team members who are empathic & supportive of their colleagues offer practical assistance, share information & collaboratively solve problems. 5) Performance Feedback: * Individuals, the team & the organization all require accurate and timely feedback about the team’s performance in order to maintain their effectiveness.

25 Usual Phases of a Team's Development Forming. Storming. Norming. Performing. Reorientating. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

26 1.Forming 2.Storming 3.Norming 4.Performing 5.Reorientating team building.WHO.2007.geneva

27 1)Forming This is the initial orientation period. The team is unsure about what it is supposed to do, members do not know each other well or are not yet familiar with the way the team leader & the other members function. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

28 2) Storming The team members now feel more comfortable giving their opinion & challenging the team leader's authority & recommendations. Some members may become dissatisfied & challenge not only the tasks of the team & how these will be carried out, but also the leader's role and style of leadership. This is the start of intra-group conflicts. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

29 3) Norming Team members begin to use their past experiences to solve their problems & pull together as a cohesive group. This process should result in the team establishing procedures for handling conflicts, decisions, & methods to accomplish the team projects. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

30 4) Performing In this phase the team has achieved harmony, defined its tasks, worked out its relationships, & has started producing results. Members have learned how to work together, manage conflict & contribute their resources to meet the team's purposes. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

31 5) Reorientating The team dissolves when the team has completed the project. It may be reoriented to continue on a next phase of the project. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

32 Responsibilities of Team Leader: 1) Assign clear tasks to each member. 2) Regularly review & monitor progress of work. 3) Discuss & agree on the timetable for major activities with the team. 4) Motivate team members & Resolve conflicts. 5) Helps members to overcome barriers. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

33 External Barriers to Teamwork: 1)Work load: Members are often required to work on their team assignments in addition to a full workload or are given more work than they are capable of handling. 2) Teams are not given adequate resources. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

34 Internal Barriers to Teamwork: 1) Team members don’t set appropriate goals for the team and do not implement a plan for reaching them. 2) Team members don’t spend enough time planning how they will work together. 3) Inability to resolve interpersonal conflict. 4) Lack of consistent or clear team leadership. team building.WHO.2007.geneva

35 Team Building in Health Care Settings: team building.WHO.2007.geneva

36 Definition According to a research synthesis released in 2006, titled “Teamwork in Healthcare,” Teamwork is the interaction or relationship of two or more health professionals who work interdependently to provide care for patients. Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010

37 Factors affecting the development of healthcare teams: 1) Changing demographics with aging populations. 2) Increasing complexity of healthcare. 3) Rising costs of health-related technology. 4) Increasing consumer expectations. Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010

38 Factors affecting the development of healthcare teams (cont.) This has challenged health professionals & medical staff in particular, to work together more effectively to: Reduce admissions. Decrease length of stay. Rationalize expensive interventions, while still endeavoring to provide high quality care. Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010

39 Impact of teamwork on patients: 1)Improves care by increasing coordination of services, especially for complex problems. 2)Integrates health care for a wide range of problems and needs. Interdisciplinary collaborative teams in primary care: a model curriculum and resource guide.1995.

40 Impact of teamwork on health care professionals: 1) Increases professional satisfaction. 2) Enables the practitioner to learn new skills & approaches. 3) Encourages innovation. 4) Allows providers to focus on individual areas of expertise. Interdisciplinary collaborative teams in primary care: a model curriculum and resource guide.1995.

41 Impact of Teamwork on Health Care Delivery System: 1) Maximizes resources & facilities. 2) Decreases burden on acute care facilities as a result of increased preventive care. 3) Facilitates continuous quality improvement efforts. Interdisciplinary collaborative teams in primary care: a model curriculum and resource guide.1995.


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