Presentation on theme: "Team Building Insight on Team Building in Health Care Settings"— Presentation transcript:
1Team Building Insight on Team Building in Health Care Settings
2team building.WHO.2007.geneva Learning ObjectivesDefine team and team building .Identify factors that should be considered in selecting the right team.Define the characteristics of effective teams.Describe team development phases.Identify barriers affecting teamwork.Understand the impact of teamwork on healthcare professionals, patients, & healthcare delivery systems.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
3team building.WHO.2007.geneva What is a Team?Team:Two or more people working interdependently towards a common goal.Getting a group of people together does not make a “team.”A team develops products that are the result of the team's collective effort and involves synergy.Synergy is the property where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
4team building.WHO.2007.geneva What is a Team?Team Building: The process of gathering the right people and getting them to work together for the benefit of a project.Norms :Acceptable standards of behaviors within a group that are shared by group members.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
5Selecting the Right Team for a Project Team size.Overall team composition.Team member selection.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
6team building.WHO.2007.geneva Team SizeRecommended size is a team of 3-12 members.A team of 5-7 members is the best.Small teams work faster and tend to produce results quickly, but there is less diversity.Teams greater than 7 or 8 members require an expert.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
7team building.WHO.2007.geneva Team CompositionEnsure that the team have a wide range of experience and skillsConsider members who have different abilities such as:Technical expertise and skills.Administrative skills (e.g. problem-solving & decision-making skills).Interpersonal and communication skills.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
8Team Member Selection & Exclusion When selecting team members, give preference to individuals who are:Concerned about & committed to the common purpose and goals (interested in the project)Enthusiastic & Optimistic.Creative, flexible, proactive, & open minded.Can devote time to the initiative .team building.WHO.2007.geneva
9Team Member Selection & Exclusion Good team players:Work effectively as a member of a team.Respect the values, beliefs and opinions of others.Relate to & interact effectively with individuals & groups.Willing to cooperate to reach common goals.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
10Characteristics of Effective Teams Organizational structure.Individual contribution.Team processes.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
11Characteristics of Effective Teams Organizational structureClear purposeAppropriate cultureSpecified taskDistinct rolesSuitable leadershipRelevant membersAdequate resourcesMickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
12Characteristics of Effective Teams Organizational Structure:1)Clear PurposeEach organization should have a clear mission & vision.Clear & measurable team goals could be derived from the mission statement.As team members participated in setting & prioritizing goals, they better understood the task requirements & were more motivated to achieve them.
13Characteristics of Effective Teams 2) Appropriate CultureOrganizational culture needs to transform shared values into behavioral norms.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
14Characteristics of Effective Teams 3)Specified Tasks:Tasks should make tangible contribution to the organization & should be sufficiently motivating.4)Distinct Roles:Roles need to be flexible to accommodate individual differences & personal development.Individuals should be able to negotiate their roles to perform unique & meaningful tasks.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
15Characteristics of Effective Teams 5) Suitable Leadership:Leaders need to maintain a strategic focus to support the organization’s vision, facilitate goal setting, educate, & evaluate achievements.When leaders delegate responsibility appropriately, team members become more confident & autonomous in their work.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
16Characteristics of Effective Teams 6) Relevant Members:Teams require the right number of members with the appropriate mix and diversity of tasks & interpersonal skills. A balance between homogeneity and heterogeneity of members’ skills, interests & backgrounds is Preferred.7) Adequate Resources:Organizations need to provide teams with adequate financial resources, administrative & technical support & professional education.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
17Characteristics of Effective Teams Individual ContributionSelf-knowledgetrustCommitmentFlexibilityMickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
18Characteristics of Effective Teams Individual Contribution:1) Self Knowledge:Individuals need to be independent & self-aware before they can be satisfied, productive & respectful of others.2) Trust:The ability to trust originates from self-knowledge & competence.Trust must be slowly built up across team members who have different competencies, assumptions & priorities, through developing confidence in each other’s competence & reliability.
19Characteristics of Effective Teams 3) Commitment:Commitment to a unified set of team goals & values provides direction & motivation for individual members. Further, commitment is increased by & increases feelings of responsibility for & participation in the team’s work.4) Flexibility:Ability to maintain an open attitude, accommodate different personal values & be receptive to the ideas of others.
20Characteristics of Effective Teams Team processesCommunicationCohesionConflict managementSocial relationshipsPerformance FeedbackMickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
21characteristics of Effective Teams Team Process:1) CommunicationAs a major form of communication, meetings need to have clear agendas, & be managed so that all members contribute .In addition, clear two-way communication channels across team boundaries & with the organization ensures the relevance of the team’s functioning.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
22Characteristics of Effective Teams 2) CohesionTeam cohesion acknowledges members’ personal attraction to the team & the task.Members cooperate interdependently around the team’s task in order to meet team goalsSocially, members feel as if they belong & want to remain with the team for future tasks.Cohesion can be fostered through small team sizes, similar attitudes & physical proximity.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
23Characteristics of Effective Teams 3) Conflict Management:* Team conflict can source both creativity & destruction. For teams to value creative contributions & promote effective problem solving, diversity needs careful management.Destructive team conflict often has an interpersonal basis in work role or organizational factors.Mickan S, Rodger S. Characteristics of effective teams: a literature review.Aust Health Rev. 2000;23(3):201-8.
24Characteristics of Effective Teams 4) Social Relationships:Good social relationships maintain effective teams.Personally, team members who are empathic &supportive of their colleagues offer practical assistance,share information & collaboratively solve problems.5) Performance Feedback:* Individuals, the team & the organization allrequire accurate and timely feedback about theteam’s performance in order to maintain theireffectiveness.
25Usual Phases of a Team's Development Forming.Storming.Norming.Performing.Reorientating .team building.WHO.2007.geneva
27team building.WHO.2007.geneva 1)FormingThis is the initial orientation period.The team is unsure about what it is supposed to do, members do not know each other well or are not yet familiar with the way the team leader & the other members function.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
28team building.WHO.2007.geneva 2) StormingThe team members now feel more comfortable giving their opinion & challenging the team leader's authority & recommendations.Some members may become dissatisfied & challenge not only the tasks of the team & how these will be carried out, but also the leader's role and style of leadership.This is the start of intra-group conflicts.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
29team building.WHO.2007.geneva 3) NormingTeam members begin to use their past experiences to solve their problems & pull together as a cohesive group.This process should result in the team establishing procedures for handling conflicts, decisions, & methods to accomplish the team projects.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
30team building.WHO.2007.geneva 4) PerformingIn this phase the team has achieved harmony, defined its tasks, worked out its relationships, & has started producing results.Members have learned how to work together, manage conflict & contribute their resources to meet the team's purposes.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
31team building.WHO.2007.geneva 5) ReorientatingThe team dissolves when the team has completed the project. It may be reoriented to continue on a next phase of the project.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
32Responsibilities of Team Leader: 1) Assign clear tasks to each member. 2) Regularly review & monitor progress of work. 3) Discuss & agree on the timetable for major activities with the team. 4) Motivate team members & Resolve conflicts. 5) Helps members to overcome barriers.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
33External Barriers to Teamwork: 1)Work load:Members are often required to work on their team assignments in addition to a full workload or are given more work than they are capable of handling.2) Teams are not given adequateresources.team building.WHO.2007.geneva
34Internal Barriers to Teamwork: 1) Team members don’t set appropriate goalsfor the team and do not implement a plan forreaching them.2) Team members don’t spend enough timeplanning how they will work together.3) Inability to resolve interpersonal conflict.4) Lack of consistent or clear team leadership .team building.WHO.2007.geneva
35Team Building in Health Care Settings: team building.WHO.2007.geneva
36Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010 DefinitionAccording to a research synthesis released in 2006, titled “Teamwork in Healthcare,” Teamwork is the interaction or relationship of two or more health professionals who work interdependently to provide care for patients.Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010
37Factors affecting the development of healthcare teams: 1) Changing demographics with agingpopulations.2) Increasing complexity of healthcare.3) Rising costs of health-related technology.4) Increasing consumer expectations.Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010
38Factors affecting the development of healthcare teams (cont.) This has challenged health professionals & medical staff in particular, to work together more effectively to:Reduce admissions.Decrease length of stay.Rationalize expensive interventions, while still endeavoring to provide high quality care.Are doctors team players, and do they need to be?. N Z Med J. 2010
39Impact of teamwork on patients: Improves care by increasingcoordination of services, especially forcomplex problems.Integrates health care for a wide rangeof problems and needs.Interdisciplinary collaborative teams in primary care: a model curriculum and resource guide.1995.
40Impact of teamwork on health care professionals: 1) Increases professional satisfaction.2) Enables the practitioner to learn newskills & approaches.3) Encourages innovation.4) Allows providers to focus on individualareas of expertise.Interdisciplinary collaborative teams in primary care: a model curriculum and resource guide.1995.
41Impact of Teamwork on Health Care Delivery System: 1) Maximizes resources & facilities. 2) Decreases burden on acute care facilities as a result of increased preventive care. 3) Facilitates continuous quality improvement efforts.Interdisciplinary collaborative teams in primary care: a model curriculum and resource guide.1995.