Totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. Genetic diversity- variation of genes within species. Definition
Species diversity- the number of different species that constitute the entire biological spectrum on earth. Ecosystem diversity- diversity of ecological complexes or biotic communities in a given area.
Hot Spot concept-British ecologist, Norman Myers (1988) Criteria for designating an area as hotspot (i) richness in endemic species-1500 endemic plant species,0.5% of global total (ii) impact by human activities- must have lost more than 70% of its original habitat.
25 major hotspots together represent 1.4 % of the earth's land area, they contain 44% of all plant species and 35% of all terrestrial vertebrate species in the world. 1. Indo-Burma ( earlier Eastern Himalayas ) 2. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. 3. Himalayas. (Newly added)
Vegetation types: scrub jungles and grasslands at low altitudes. Dry and moist deciduous forests,S Montane grasslands and Sholas. Tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests.
Complex topography, high rainfall and relative inaccessibility-reasons to retain rich biodiversity. 4,780 species of flowering plants.(15,000 in India) Diversity of traditional crop plants and animal life. Endemic species-amphibians, freshwater fishes and invertebrate groups.
Tropical Asia- East of the Ganges-Brahmaputra lowlands, excluding Malesian region. Covers an area of 2,373,000 sq. km.
India is the seventh largest country in the world. Second largest nation in Asia. land frontier- 15,200 kms Coastline of 7,516 km. One of the top twelve megadiversity countries
No of plant species- 49,219 (12.5% of the world) No of animal species- 81,251 (6.6% of world fauna.)
Species endemism among plants- 33%. Endemism among animals 1.mammals –low, only 44 species. 2.Birds-low, only 55. 3.Reptile-high,187. 4.Amphibia- high,110 National parks- 89 & Wild life Sancturies-497} 1.56 lkh sq.km- Tiger reserves-27- 37761 sq.km
GroupNo. of speciesNo. of species (SW)SI/SW(%) in India (SI)in the World Mammals37246297.6 Birds1228970212.6 Reptiles42865506.2 Amphibians20445224.4 Fishes25462173011.7 Flowering plants170002,50,0006.0 Source: Jaivavaividhyam (Malayalam), 1996, TBGRI.
Area- 38,863 sq. km, (1.2 % of the total geographical area of India.) Coast line- 560 km. Altitudes up to 2694 m above msl. mountainous upland-75-2,694 m above msl- 48% ( Forest biodiversity)
Midlands-8-75 m above msl- 42% (Agrobiodiversity) Coastal belt-0 to 7 m above msl-10% (Aquatic biodiversity) Among the States located within the Western Ghats region, Kerala is the richest in biodiversity.
Sl. NoPlant GroupNo. of Species 1Algae325 2Fungi4,800 3Lichens520 4Bryophytes350 5Pteridophytes236 6Gymnosperms4 7Angiosperms4,500 Total10,735
S1. No.GroupNo. of Species 1Insects 4,027 2Freshwater fishes 196 3Amphibians 85 4Reptiles 164 5Birds 486 6 Mammals 145
Apart from fuel, shelter, medicines and other resources for our survival, vital services like: Maintenance of water supply. Water regulation. Ground water recharge. Soil formation. Prevention of soil erosion. Reduction of soil salinity. Nutrient cycling. Waste treatment. Climate regulation. Gas regulation.
Flood and drought control. Enhancement of water and air quality. Pollination. Biological control. Habitat refuge. Food production. Raw material. Genetic resources. Recreation. Cultural.
Forest : Rs. 92,322 per hectare per year Wetland : Rs. 6,80,110 per ha per year (seven times more). Total forest value of Kerala per year:14381 crores. Total wetland value of Kerala per year:15797 crores. Wetland value of paddy fields: 7318 crores Total value : Rs. 37496 crores.(almost one and a half more than the revenue receipt)
Values are calculated on the basis of global average values of ecosystem services. Tropical forests and wet lands are more complex with higher biodiversity values Hence the ecosystems services of Kerala would be at least 5 to 10 times more. Aesthetic, spiritual, cultural values – unquantifiable.
Earth summit in June 1992 at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). – Conservation of biodiversity- “A common concern of human kind” – Every nation has “sovereign rights” over its biodiversity. – Calls for national strategies – India became a party to the convention in 1994
Biological Diversity Act, 2002 ( Central Act No. 18 of 2003 ) Biological diversity rules, 2004 Chapter VI section 22 to 25 of the Act calls for the establishment of state biodiversity boards by the state governments This act and rules provide guidance to union and state governments for:
– Conservation of biodiversity including the integrity and diversity of genes, species and ecosystem and their evolutionary potential. – Sustainable use of biological resources in such a manner and at such rates that does not lead to the long term decline of the diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations. – Equity in conservation and use, including equitable access to biological resources and benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.
Kerala state biodiversity board constituted in 2005 Kerala state biodiversity rules have been finalized by the board. Salient features of the rules: – Conservation of the biodiversity of the state. – Sustainable utilization of the biodiversity resources – Equitable sharing of the benefits derived from biodiversity.
– Ensuring protection of rights including intellectual property rights over biological resources and associated knowledge – Regulation of the commercial utilization of biodiversity by any Indian or foreign national / Institution / Corporate bodies by granting approval or otherwise and, – Advice the government on all matters related to biodiversity conservation and use.
As per rule Rule 23 subrule (1) of KSBB, all the local bodies should form biodiversity management committees (BMCs) within its area. It is an arrangement that works in co-ordination with the three-tier Panachayat Raj System, as per the existing regulations. Preparation of Peoples Biodiversity Register is the immediate task of BMCs
An attempt to realise the rich biodiversity in the Grama/Block/District Panchayats, state and the whole country. A comprehensive database recording people’s knowledge and insight of the status, uses, history, ongoing changes and forces driving these changes in the biological diversity resources of their own localities.
It will provide information on current utilization patterns of biodiversity, its economic benefits to the local communities and future management strategies required for the sustainable utilization of biodiversity in a decentralized manner. It helps equitable sharing of benefits arising out of commercial utilization of biodiversity resources and knowledge of their uses.
Appropriate action plan is also formulated for each strategy – Maintain the topographic features of the State to reduce the loss of Biodiversity. – Documentation of the biodiversity and its traditional use – Conservation of biodiversity rich areas outside the Protected Areas – Build up a strong database on the forest biodiversity of the State – Conservation of ecosystem, species and gene pools.
– Prevention of habitat fragmentation and maintenance of habitat continuity. – Mitigation of human wildlife conflicts. – Establish a model for sustainable utilization of resources for livelihood and the equitable benefits. – Prevention of overexploitation and encroachment – Ensure sustained availability of raw material for indigenous food and medicines
– Protect and promote biodiversity in and around plantations – Ensure long term conservation of select wetlands in the State – Prevent conversion of wetlands into any other land use and maintain their extent and ecological status. – Sustainable utilization of wetland resources for the benefit of local community. – Establish environmental flows in each river basin
– Institute a legal and administrative framework for conservation and sustainable use of wetland resources. – Prepare a database on aquatic biodiversity – Documentation of coastal and marine biodiversity of Kerala – Develop a database of agro-biodiversity and domesticated biodiversity. – Promote conservation of indigenous varieties and their commercial production
– Prevent contamination of natural biodiversity of the state from genetically modified organisms. – Conservation of sacred groves – Create Biodiversity Technical support group and a network of taxonomists and conservationists – Set up and strengthen institutions and agencies for economic evaluation of biodiversity
– Implement biodiversity education and awareness programmes for the target groups. – Make use of the knowledge on Biodiversity as a source of income generation. – Establish Kerala Biodiversity Information System (KBIS). – Ensure sustainability of Biodiversity conservation activities.