Principles of Good Eating Variety Creates a diet with sufficient amounts of required nutrients. Balance Intake of nutrients from the major food groups. Moderation Planning to maintain a balanced nutrient intake throughout the day.
My Pyramid www.mypyramid.gov Can be personalized Based on age, sex, and level of daily exercise Figure is to emphasize at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Control caloric intake to manage body weight. Consume a variety of foods. Within the basic food groups Increase daily intake of: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk and milk products. Choose fats wisely for good health. Limit saturated fats and trans fats.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans (cont.) Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Be physically active every day. Keep food safe to eat.
Serving Size Versus Portions The USDA defines a standard serving of pasta as one-half cup. The FDA, which regulates food labels, claims a standard serving is 1 cup. Typical restaurant pasta portion averages about 3 cups. Equal to 6 servings according to MyPyramid
Mediterranean and Vegetarian Diet Pyramids Mediterranean Emphasizes fruits, nuts, vegetables, legumes, all manner of unrefined grains, and protein derived from fish, beans, and chicken High monounsaturated fatty acid content Vegetarian Consists of foods from the plant kingdom
Protein Intake - Physically Active RDA = 0.8 g/kg of body mass Is it enough? Eating a high-carbohydrate diet Adequate to conserve muscle protein during intense training.
Protein Intake - Physically Active Those in endurance training 1.2 to 1.6 g/kg/day of high-quality protein Those who resistance train 1.0-1.6 g/kg of body mass.
Protein Metabolism Enter (AA pool) Dietary Tissue breakdown Nonessential – formed in body
Protein Metabolism Exit - (AA pool) Into gut Into tissue structure AA N 2 lost in urine, sweat Oxidized Stored as CHO, fat
Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis Gene expression Each gene directs synthesis of one protein DNA is transribed to mRNA (messenger RNA) mRNA takes the message out to the ribosome tRNA (transfer RNA) is also required to make the new molecule
Rodent muscle 113% increase in muscle urea N 2 content 1 h running Increased degradation of muscle protein Kasperek & Snider, 1989 Significant muscle damage Armstrong et al. 1983 Significant eccentric component Protein Needs-Physical Exercise
Research questions Does increased protein intake reduce this damage? Does increased protein intake speed the repair processes?
Protein Needs-Physical Exercise Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) Predominantly oxidized during endurance exercise Related to availability of BCAA and inversely proportional to glycogen availability Increased BCAA/glycogen at end of prolonged run Fasting state
Branched Chain Amino Acids Daily requirements Single bout of exercise 2 h 55% VO 2 max Oxidation rate equivalent to 90% daily requirement
Endurance Exercise and Protein Metabolism Energy requirement – 1 h 65-75%VO 2max kcal/h %fat %pro %CHO Males838 23 5 72
High Protein Intake Concerns? Kidney failure Rodents – 80% protein No problems Absence of reports of kidney problems in weight lifter/body builders High protein diets 20-30 years Excess N 2 not a problem – In healthy individuals
High Protein Intake Concerns? Dehydration Excess water loss with nitrogen excretion Sweat loss Proper rehydration – monitor body weight