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1 The Swift Gamma- Ray Burst Explorer Paolo DAvanzo INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico Di Brera (MISTICI team) Universita` degli studi dellInsubria Multiwavelength.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Swift Gamma- Ray Burst Explorer Paolo DAvanzo INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico Di Brera (MISTICI team) Universita` degli studi dellInsubria Multiwavelength."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Swift Gamma- Ray Burst Explorer Paolo DAvanzo INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico Di Brera (MISTICI team) Universita` degli studi dellInsubria Multiwavelength Italian Swift Team with International Co-Investigators

2 2 Successfully launched on the 20 th of November 2004 267 days in orbit All instruments operating to spec BAT First Light: 3 December 2004 XRT First Light: 11 December 2004 First BAT Burst: 17 December 2004 First XRT Afterglow: 23 December 2004 UVOT First Light: 12 January 2005 First UVOT Afterglow 15 March 2005 Calibration phase ended on Apr 5 The Swift Mission

3 3 OUTLINE GRB: theory and open matters Swift & REM: instruments, performances & science GRB: results Observationals procedures: BA & DS Secondary science: X-Ray Binaries Conclusions & Future

4 4 GRB Characteristics (BATSE+SAX) Short (10 ms < t < 1000 s) and intense (E ~ 10^54 erg) pulse of gamma rays occurring at random positions in the sky Isotropic distribution (BATSE) Afterglow era (SAX) Cosmological distances (SAX)

5 5 The standard model: fireball central photosphere internal external shocks engine (shocks) (reverse) (forward) gamma-ray UV/opt/IR/radio gamma-ray X-ray UV/optical IR mm radio Rees & Meszaros 1994; Paczynski & Xu 1994 Emission mechanism: synchrotron emission from power-law distribution electrons in highly relativistic outflows

6 6 Progenitors: long GRBs Light curvesSpectra GRB 980425 (Galama et al., 1998) First GRB – SN association GRB 021211 (Massimo Della Valle, Daniele Malesani, Stefano Benetti, Vincenzo Testa, Mario Hamuy, L. Angelo Antonelli, Guido Chincarini, Gabriele Cocozza, Stefano Covino, Paolo D'Avanzo & 7 coautori A&A 406, L33-L37 (2003)) GRB 031203 (Daniele Malesani, Gianpiero Tagliaferri Guido Chincarini, Stefano Covino, Massimo Della Valle, Dino Fugazza, Paolo Mazzali, Filippo M. Zerbi, Paolo D'Avanzo & 17 coautori ApJ 609, L5-L8 (2004)) SN - Connection

7 7 8 hour data gap 4 orders of magnitude Beppo-SAX takes at least 6-8 hours to perform an afterglow follow-up observation with its narrow field instruments. During this time, afterglow fades orders of magnitude. The data gap Swift was designed to fill in the gap making very early observations of the afterglows, beginning approximately a minute after the burst.

8 8 Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) –15-150 keV –FOV: 2 steradiants –Centroid accuracy: 1 - 4 X-Ray Telescope (XRT) –0.2-10.0 keV –FOV: 23.6 x 23.6 – centroid accuracy:5 (UVOT) UV/Optical Telescope –30 cm telescope –6 filters (170 nm – 600 nm) –FOV: 17 x 17 –24 th mag sensitivity (1000 sec) –Centroid accuracy 0.5 BAT XRT Spacecraft UVOT BAT UVOT XRT Spacecraft Swift Mission

9 9 A fast moving telescope … Alt-az 60 cm f/8 RC silver-coated Alt-az 60 cm f/8 RC silver-coated 2 Nasmyth foci (one idle) 2 Nasmyth foci (one idle) 60 deg 5 sec – to any, in 60 sec 60 deg 5 sec – to any, in 60 sec 10x10 am 2 FoV 10x10 am 2 FoV … with a high throughput NIR Camera… 10x10 am 2 FoV 10x10 am 2 FoV 1.2 as pixel scale ( 1.2 as pixel scale ( 0.9-2.3 microns (Z,J,H,Ks) 0.9-2.3 microns (Z,J,H,Ks) 512x512 HgCdTe chip @77 Kelvin 512x512 HgCdTe chip @77 Kelvin Wobbling plate for dithering Wobbling plate for dithering

10 10 BAT Burst Image T<10 sec < 4' 1.Burst Alert Telescope triggers on GRB, calculates position on sky to < 4 arcmin 2.Spacecraft autonomously slews to GRB position in 20-70 s 3.X-ray Telescope determines position to < 5 arcseconds 4.UV/Optical Telescope images field, transmits finding chart to ground BAT Error Circle XRT Image T<100 sec < 5'' T<300 sec T< 60 sec UVOT/REM Image Observing Scenario

11 11 BAT Bursts 66 GRBs detected/imaged since Dec. 17 (33.5 weeks as of 08/30/05) 041217050315050410050502B050603050715050730050815 041219A,B,C050318050412 050505050607050716050803050819 041220050319050416A,B050507050701050716050805050820A,B 041223050326050418 050509A,B050712050721050807050822 041224050401050421 050525050713A,B050724050813050824 041226050406050422050528050714B050726050814 050830 041228 050117 050124 050126 050128 050202 050215A 050215B 050219A,B 050223 050306 Average rate is ~90/year

12 12 XRF Short GRB XRF Short GRB XRF Short GRB


14 14 Progenitors: short GRBs (I) GRB 050509B: first detection of the X-ray afterglow of a short GRB (N. Gehrels et al., 2005 Nature) GRB 050709: first detection of the optical afterglow of a short GRB (S. Covino, D. Malesani, G.L. Israel, P. DAvanzo & 29 coauthors, 2005 A&AL, submitted) GRB 050724: again a detection of the optical afterglow of a short GRB (S.D. Barthelmy, G. Chincarini, D.N Burrows, N. Geherels, S. Covino, A. Moretti, P. Romano, P.T. OBrien, C.L. Sarazin, C. Kouvelotou, M. Goad, S. Vaughan, G. Tagliaferri, B. Zhang, A. Antonelli, S. Campana, P. DAvanzo & 12 coauthors, 2005 Nature, submitted) Host Galaxies

15 15 Progenitors: short GRBs (II) GRB 050509B & GRB 050724 Host Galaxies early type elliptical red color spectrum no emission lines Low star formation rate Population of very old stars XRT position GRB 050709 Host Galaxy late type irregular blue color spectrum Hα emission line BUT... off-core (3 kpc) position of the OT, consistent with a system of age 10^9 y vs. Host Galaxies of long GRB

16 16 The fartest GRB ever observed z = 6.3! ESO press release 12 Sep 2005

17 17 Observational procedures (I) REM

18 18 Observational procedures (II) Burst Advocate Rem Duty Scientist

19 19 Science with Swift & REM GRBs observed rate now is about 2 burst per week but also latitude/longitude constraints have to be taken into account. This is leaving free Swift & REM observing time that is largely used for: Any program requesting fast multi-frequency observations 1.Multifrequency monitoring of AGNs 2.X-Ray Binaries 3.Flare Stars 4.Others... GRB!

20 20 X-Ray Binaries sporadic outbursts long quiescent periods SXRT

21 21 Doppler tomography image reconstruction monitoring at different orbital phases bidimensional maps spectral lines familiar spatial coordinates… … and corresponding velocity coordinates

22 22 Centaurus X-4 – quiescent optical emmission H α HeI 5875 HeI 6678 circular ring-like structure in emission emission from the companion visible hot spot Irradiation hypothesis: DISC H α emission from external region HeI emission from internal region COMPANION STAR H α emission from low velocity regions HeI emission from high velocity regions

23 23 Origin of the quiescent emission (I) fase 0 fase 0.25 fase 0.5 fase 0.75 The companion fills its Roche Lobe and could be subject to irradiation from the NS

24 24 Origin of the quiescent emission (II) D'Avanzo et al. 2005, A&A, accepted EW = 4.4 ± 0.5 Å log F Hα = log EW(Hα) + 0.113(B-V) 2 – 1.188(B-V) +7.487 (Soderblom et al., 1993) F Hα = 7 x 10 6 erg cm -2 s -1 L X = 4 x 10 32 erg s -1 (Campana et al., 2004) F X = L X /(4πa 2 ) = 5 x 10 8 erg cm -2 s -1 a = 3.6 solar radius L Hα = f 1 f 2 L X = 5 x 10 -3 L X = 0.5% L X f 1 = solid angle f 2 = 0. 3 (Osterbrock 1987) 1% of the incident X-Ray flux should be reprocessed to Hα photons

25 25 ms X-Ray Pulsars Source nameX period (Hz/ms) Orbital period (h) Optical counterpart in quiescence SAX J1808.4-3658401 Hz /2.49 ms2.01 hrsI=21 XTE J1751-305435 Hz /2.30 ms0.70 hrsR>23.1, I>21.6 XTE J0929-314185 Hz /5.41 ms0.73 hrsn XTE J1807-294191 Hz /5.24 ms0.67 hrsn XTE J1814-338314 Hz /3.18 ms4.30 hrsR > 23 IGR J00291-5934599 Hz /1.67 ms2.46 hrsI > 21 HETE J1900.1- 2455 377 Hz/2.65 ms1.39 hrsn Campana, D'Avanzo et al., 2004, ApJ ESO – VLT proposal (in prep.) TNG approved proposal (P.I.: P. DAvanzo)

26 26 Conclusions (I) Exciting Swift results on: –GRB progenitors –Host Galaxy morfology –High z GRB New light on quiescent optical emission of SXRTs Opportunity to investigate the link between ms X-Ray Pulsars and ms Radio Pulsars

27 27 Conclusions (II) Our results on GRB led to: –42 GCN circulars –3 published papers –3 submitted papers –2 papers in preparation Our results on SXRT led to: –1 paper published –1 approved TNG proposal –3 ESO proposals in preparation

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