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Pediatrics Acute Care Kim Martin, RN,MSN Nursing Instructor Harrisburg Area Community College Pediatric Lab Day 2012
Communication with Children Infants –-Respond quickly, soothing, mothering tone –Gentle handling, no sudden movements –Hold infant firmly and close to body for security –Stranger anxiety 4-6months
Communication with Children Toddlers –Give toddlers their space –Talk with parents first so they can see that parents accept you –Routine –Simple words and directions –Play!
Communication with Children Preschooler –Strives for independence –Give choices –Use doll or puppet to help explain procedures –Let them touch and explore the equipment –Be honest
Communication with Children School Age –Use concrete explanation –Formal presentations –Answer questions honestly –Concerned about mutilation
Communication with Children Adolescents –Concrete, logical, abstract –Do not demean them –Observe language, actions and body language –Social connections are most important
Assessment Obtain history first Head to toe Save ears and perineal area for last Observe parent’s interactions Growth and Development Nutritional status Hygiene Behavior
Assessment Temperature –Temporal –Axillary –Rectal for infants
Assessment Pulse –Take apical –Count for one full minute AGERANGE Infant100-140 Toddler90-120 Preschooler80-120 School Age70-110 Adolescent60-100
Assessment Respirations AGERANGE Infant26-40 Toddler20-30 Preschooler20-25 School-Age17-22 Adolescent15-20
Assessment Blood Pressure AGERANGE Infant74/50 – 100/70 Toddler80/50 - 112/70 Preschooler82/50 – 110/78 School Age84/54 -120/80 Adolescent94/62- 140/88
Assessment Weight and Height –Infant- naked and no diaper –Children Head Circumference –Chest and abdominal circumference as per institutional policy
Assessment Pain- 5 th vital sign –Must assess with vital signs –Use faces scale for toddlers and preschooler –Numeric scale for older children
Assessment Face pain scale
Assessment University of Wisconsin Children’s Hospital Pain Scale
Assessment Pain –Pain management Non-pharmacological Pharmacological –Invasive procedure EMLA- Eutectic Mixture Local Anesthetic or LMX Apply 30 minutes before procedure Cover with occlusive dressing
Developmental Approach Infant –Trust –Stranger Anxiety –Memory of past experience
Developmental Approach Toddler –Autonomy –Preoperational thought –Negativism –Ritualism –Limited language –No concept of time
Developmental Approach Preschooler –Initiative –Concrete –Egocentrism –Fear of bodily harm –Illness is punishment
Developmental Approach School Age –Industry –Concrete –Increased language skills –Understanding of time –Self control –Relationships with peers
Developmental Approach Adolescent –Identity- self concept –Formal operations –No concern for the future –Peers
Milestones..\child-development- milestone-chart.pdf..\child-development- milestone-chart.pdf http://www.child- development- guide.com/child- development-milestone.html
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