Presentation on theme: "International Human Rights Day Sexual Violence by the U. S"— Presentation transcript:
1 International Human Rights Day Sexual Violence by the U. S International Human Rights Day Sexual Violence by the U.S. Military in Okinawa: What Can We Do?December 10, 2012Michiko Hase
2 Active Duty Forces Abroad (12/31/2011) The number for Iraq is for before the withdrawal of the troops. A few hundreds of troops remain in Iraq, guarding the US embassy and training the Iraqui military.
3 U.S. Military Personnel in Japan (3/31/2009) Marine Corps 14,951Air Force 12,490Navy ,766Army 2,501Total 36,708＊ 68.4% are in OkinawaThe majority are in Okinawa (about 68% of the total)
4 U.S. Military in Okinawa ~Historical View~ 3/26—6/23(9/7) Battle of Okinawa(one in four Okinawans died)8/15 Japan surrenders4/28 Occupation of Japan ends Okinawa -- US military rule ( )/15 Reversion of Okinawa to JapanToday 74% of US military facilities in Japan are in Okinawa (0.6% of Japan’s total area)
5 U.S. Military in Okinawa Today Number of US military facilities (3/31/2010)34Areas of US military facilities (3/31/2010)10.2% of total area of Okinawa prefecture (18.4% of Okinawa Island)73.9% of exclusive US military facilities in JapanUS military personnel, civilian employees, family members (9/30/2009)Total – 44,895Military personnel 24,612 (68.4% of total US military personnel in Japan, 35,965)Civilian employees 1,381Family members 18,902
6 Sexual Violence by US Military in Okinawa Most notorious cases:a 6-year-old girl was abducted, raped and brutally murdered by a US servicemana 12-year-old girl was abducted and raped by 3 servicemenMay 1972 ~ Sept arrests in 127 cases of rape or attempted rapeBut many more cases like Yumi’s in the film
7 Sexual violence by U.S. military in Okinawa, 2012 August a woman was sexually assaulted and injured by a marine corporal (arrested)October a woman was gang-raped by two sailors-- Nov. 6 – prosecuted for rape and assault; one of them also for robberyOctober Night-time curfew (11:00pm to 5:00am) placed on all U.S. troops in Japan
8 Curfew is ineffectiveNovember 2 -- a heavily intoxicated airman broke into an apartment and punched a junior-high-school boy; no arrest made by Okinawa police perpetrator in US custody and not a “heinous crime”November a U.S. Marine Corps lieutenant trespassed in a room of a buildingDecember 1 -- US military in Okinawa bans drinking outside bases (except in one’s own home) at all times; drinking on bases banned between 10 p.m. and 8 a.m.＊Curfew imposed in 2000 & 2008 but ineffective
9 Sexual Violence within U.S. Military Marine Corps Report “Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Campaign Plan 2012” (June 20, 2012)Okinawa: 67 sexual assault cases reported on Marine bases in Okinawa (Oct – Sept. 2011)Per capita rate is twice as high as that on Marine bases in the U.S.DOD Sexual Assault Response and Prevention Report (April 13, 2012)FY persons reported; 190,000 estimated victims
11 Defense Secretary Leon Panetta on sexual violence in US military “The military stands for and defends the values of good order and discipline; we’ve got to make sure that women are protected from any kind of assault.”(September 2012 interview)
12 Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) A SOFA:Is a bi-lateral international agreement that defines legal rights and obligations of the partiesSupersedes US and host-nation domestic lawProvides “facilities and areas” for use by US forces in host countryCreates rights and protections for U.S. military personnel & civilian employees-- NO legislative consent (ratification) required
13 Jurisdiction of SOFA criminal cases in Japan “Official duty” protection A SOFA member who is arrested off-base while in an official-duty status cannot be tried by the Japanese authorities U.S. military has jurisdiction “In official-duty status”: a person is doing something on behalf of the U.S. government (including commuting between home and a work function)
14 Jurisdiction of SOFA criminal cases in Japan – revised November 2011 Drunk driving – no “official duty” protection (even if drinking took place at official function) Japan has primary jurisdictionCivilian employees in official-duty status --when US authorities do not prosecute Japan can request to try the case (US still has primary jurisdiction)
15 NATOJAPAN/SOUTH KOREAEnvironmental cleanup of closed basesU.S. is responsible for cleanupNo provisionChildren of US personnel and local personGermany, UK, Sweden have individual agreements with US to cooperate re: child support
16 12 MV-22 Ospreys＊ deployed to Okinawa despite massive protests October 1-6, 2012 ＊Vertical take-off and landing transport aircraftvertical take-off and landing transport aircraft
17 Dangerous Military Aircraft Crashes --7 crashes with a total of 36 fatalities--April 2010 (Afghanistan) 4 killed, 16 injured--April 2012 (Morocco) 2 killed, 2 injured--June 2012 (Florida) 5 injuredNoiseLow-frequency noiseTraining in Hawai’i canceled (August 2012) possible impact on archaeological resources by downwash generated by the aircraftKalaupapa Airport located on the island of Molokai and Upolu Airport in Hawaii County
18 Okinawans Protest against Deployment of Ospreys 9/9/2012100,000 Okinawans protestPolice forcibly remove sit-in protesters in front of a base gate
19 U.S. Military BudgetGovernment estimates of military spending -- Department of Defense budget onlyMilitary-related costs in other departments:-- Veterans’ benefits (Dept. of Veterans Affairs)-- Nuclear weapons & research (Dept. of Energy)-- Interest on the national debt (mostly due to military spending; U.S. Treasury)$1,372 billion, or 48% of the total U.S. budget (War Resisters League ).
21 2009 Fiscal Year Total Outlays (Federal Funds): $2,650 billion MILITARY: 54% and $1,449 billion NON-MILITARY: 46% and $1,210 billionCurrent military” includes Dept. of Defense ($653 billion), the military portion from other departments ($150 billion), and an additional $162 billion to supplement the Budget’s misleading and vast underestimate of only $38 billion for the “war on terror.” “Past military” represents veterans’ benefits plus 80% of the interest on the debt.
22 U.S. Military Spending vs. The World U.S. military spending – Dept. of Defense plus nuclear weapons – is equal to the military spending of the next 15 countries combined.U.S. share of:--Military spending : 47 % of the world’s total--GDP: about 21 % of the world’s total
23 What Can We Do?Write to your representatives to Congress sponsor a hearing on sexual violence committed by US military in Okinawa--redirect of the use of tax money away from the militarySpread the word in your community--Living Along the Fencleine--Visit websites and blogsFollow news and write to news organizationsOther ideas?
25 U.S. military spendingIn 2011, the United States spends 58 percent of the total defense dollars paid out by the world's top 10 military powers, which combined for $1.19 trillion in military funding in With its unparalleled global reach, the US outspends China, the next-biggest military power, by nearly 6-to-1.
26 How the Network Got Started year-old girl abducted & raped by3 US servicemen in OkinawaOkinawan women’s “peace caravan” –SF, Washington, DC, NYC, HonoluluInternational meeting in Okinawa – Okinawa, South Korea, Philippines, Japan, continental U.S.
27 Past Network Meetings 1997 Okinawa Washington, D.C. – “East Asia-U.S. Women’s Network against U.S. Militarism”Okinawa – Puerto Rican activist joined the meeting “East Asia-U.S.-Puerto Rico Women’s Network against U.S. Militarism”South Korea – hosted by SAFE Korea (new coalition of women’s groups)
28 Past Network Meetings - 2 Philippines – hosted by Philippine Women’s Network for Peace and Security--Hawai’i joined South Korea, Puerto Rico, the United States, and the PhilippinesSan Francisco – hosted by Women for Genuine Security-- Guam/Guahan joined South Korea, Japan, Okinawa, Puerto Rico, US, and Philippines
29 Past Network Meetings - 3 Guam/Guahan –hosted by 9 local groups-- Women from Australia & Republic of Belau joined Okinawa, South Korea, Puerto Rico, Hawai'i, Philippines, Japan, U.S.2012 Puerto Rico
30 Historical ContextPuerto Rico, Philippines, Guam -- colonized by Spain.1898 Treaty of Paris (Spanish-American War)-- ceded to the United StatesWorld War II -- Philippines and Guam were occupied first by Japan and then by the United States
31 Historical Context - 2 Philippines – independence in 1946 Guam & Puerto Rico – “unincorporated territories” of US-- US citizenship (P.R. 1917; Guam:1950 )-- No voting rights in presidential elections-- A delegate in House of Representatives withlimited voting privileges
32 Historical Context - 3 Japanese colonialism and militarism Okinawa, South Korea, Philippines, Guam -- colonized or occupied by JapanHawai’i was attached by Japanese warplanes in 1941
33 Military Bases and Tourism Commonalities among Guam, Hawai’i, Okinawa (& P.R.)Climate & VegetationU.S. military presenceTourism industry
35 Issues - 2 Violence against women & girls Rape of 12-year-old girl in OkinawaRape of Nichole J. (22) in Philippines-- Many unreported cases (e.g., Yumi in film)Other crimesUS tank killed 2 junior high school girls in South Korea-- Military planes/helicopter crashes-- Thefts, burglary, robbery
36 Issues - 3 Amerasian children--Philippines, Okinawa, South Korea -- US soldier-father does not:*acknowledge child*provide child support-- Discrimination in host countries* esp. children of African American soldiers-- No int’l agreement b/w US & host countries
37 Issues - 4 Military budget -- U.S. : 48% of federal budget -- Japan: “sympathy budget” (Japan pays for rent, Japanese employees, etc.) in addition to “Host Nation Support”Military recruitment – ROTC, JROTCDistorted local economy dependence on the military
38 Activities International meetings & reports back Education Campaigns -- anti-militarism fashion show (WGS, SF, Guam)-- peace caravan (Okinawan women)-- postcards (South Korea, WGS)-- documentary films (South Korea, WGS)Campaigns-- Support for Lolas, Nicole J (Philippines)-- !000 letters to 1000 fathers of Amerasian children (Philippines)--Bumper sticker campaign (Guam)
39 Activities Research & publication Five-language peace activist dictionaryLobbyingLetter writingPetitions/resolutions-- Resolution demanding release of political prisoner (Puerto Rico)Statements-- Statement issued after 3.11 (less military spending and more resources for relief)
40 Activities Work with prostituted women --Training & job training (Philippines)-- Alternative work & store (Philippines)-- Counseling (South Korea, Philippines)-- Health care (South Korea)-- Art therapy (South Korea)Art – quilts, fabric art, mandala, collective painting, dance, musicWebsites, FacebookCollaboration with other groups-- Co-sponsor event with Code Pink (WGS)-- Collaborate with the Occupy movement?