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International Human Rights Day Sexual Violence by the U. S

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1 International Human Rights Day Sexual Violence by the U. S
International Human Rights Day Sexual Violence by the U.S. Military in Okinawa: What Can We Do? December 10, 2012 Michiko Hase

2 Active Duty Forces Abroad (12/31/2011)
The number for Iraq is for before the withdrawal of the troops. A few hundreds of troops remain in Iraq, guarding the US embassy and training the Iraqui military.

3 U.S. Military Personnel in Japan (3/31/2009)
Marine Corps 14,951 Air Force 12,490 Navy ,766 Army 2,501 Total 36,708 * 68.4% are in Okinawa The majority are in Okinawa (about 68% of the total)

4 U.S. Military in Okinawa ~Historical View~
3/26—6/23(9/7) Battle of Okinawa (one in four Okinawans died) 8/15 Japan surrenders 4/28 Occupation of Japan ends Okinawa -- US military rule ( ) /15 Reversion of Okinawa to Japan Today 74% of US military facilities in Japan are in Okinawa (0.6% of Japan’s total area)

5 U.S. Military in Okinawa Today
Number of US military facilities (3/31/2010) 34 Areas of US military facilities (3/31/2010) 10.2% of total area of Okinawa prefecture (18.4% of Okinawa Island) 73.9% of exclusive US military facilities in Japan US military personnel, civilian employees, family members (9/30/2009) Total – 44,895 Military personnel 24,612 (68.4% of total US military personnel in Japan, 35,965) Civilian employees 1,381 Family members 18,902

6 Sexual Violence by US Military in Okinawa
Most notorious cases: a 6-year-old girl was abducted, raped and brutally murdered by a US serviceman a 12-year-old girl was abducted and raped by 3 servicemen May 1972 ~ Sept arrests in 127 cases of rape or attempted rape But many more cases like Yumi’s in the film

7 Sexual violence by U.S. military in Okinawa, 2012
August a woman was sexually assaulted and injured by a marine corporal (arrested) October a woman was gang-raped by two sailors -- Nov. 6 – prosecuted for rape and assault; one of them also for robbery October Night-time curfew (11:00pm to 5:00am) placed on all U.S. troops in Japan

8 Curfew is ineffective November 2 -- a heavily intoxicated airman broke into an apartment and punched a junior-high-school boy; no arrest made by Okinawa police perpetrator in US custody and not a “heinous crime” November a U.S. Marine Corps lieutenant trespassed in a room of a building December 1 -- US military in Okinawa bans drinking outside bases (except in one’s own home) at all times; drinking on bases banned between 10 p.m. and 8 a.m. *Curfew imposed in 2000 & 2008 but ineffective

9 Sexual Violence within U.S. Military
Marine Corps Report “Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Campaign Plan 2012” (June 20, 2012) Okinawa: 67 sexual assault cases reported on Marine bases in Okinawa (Oct – Sept. 2011) Per capita rate is twice as high as that on Marine bases in the U.S. DOD Sexual Assault Response and Prevention Report (April 13, 2012) FY persons reported; 190,000 estimated victims

10 http://stripes. com/polopoly_fs/1. 181311

11 Defense Secretary Leon Panetta on sexual violence in US military
“The military stands for and defends the values of good order and discipline; we’ve got to make sure that women are protected from any kind of assault.” (September 2012 interview)

12 Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)
A SOFA: Is a bi-lateral international agreement that defines legal rights and obligations of the parties Supersedes US and host-nation domestic law Provides “facilities and areas” for use by US forces in host country Creates rights and protections for U.S. military personnel & civilian employees -- NO legislative consent (ratification) required

13 Jurisdiction of SOFA criminal cases in Japan
“Official duty” protection A SOFA member who is arrested off-base while in an official-duty status cannot be tried by the Japanese authorities U.S. military has jurisdiction “In official-duty status”: a person is doing something on behalf of the U.S. government (including commuting between home and a work function)

14 Jurisdiction of SOFA criminal cases in Japan – revised November 2011
Drunk driving – no “official duty” protection (even if drinking took place at official function) Japan has primary jurisdiction Civilian employees in official-duty status --when US authorities do not prosecute  Japan can request to try the case (US still has primary jurisdiction)

15 NATO JAPAN/ SOUTH KOREA Environmental cleanup of closed bases U.S. is responsible for cleanup No provision Children of US personnel and local person Germany, UK, Sweden have individual agreements with US to cooperate re: child support

16 12 MV-22 Ospreys* deployed to Okinawa despite massive protests October 1-6, 2012
*Vertical take-off and landing transport aircraft vertical take-off and landing transport aircraft

17 Dangerous Military Aircraft
Crashes --7 crashes with a total of 36 fatalities --April 2010 (Afghanistan) 4 killed, 16 injured --April 2012 (Morocco) 2 killed, 2 injured --June 2012 (Florida) 5 injured Noise Low-frequency noise Training in Hawai’i canceled (August 2012)  possible impact on archaeological resources by downwash generated by the aircraft Kalaupapa Airport located on the island of Molokai and Upolu Airport in Hawaii County

18 Okinawans Protest against Deployment of Ospreys
9/9/2012 100,000 Okinawans protest Police forcibly remove sit-in protesters in front of a base gate

19 U.S. Military Budget Government estimates of military spending -- Department of Defense budget only Military-related costs in other departments: -- Veterans’ benefits (Dept. of Veterans Affairs) -- Nuclear weapons & research (Dept. of Energy) -- Interest on the national debt (mostly due to military spending; U.S. Treasury) $1,372 billion, or 48% of the total U.S. budget (War Resisters League ).

20 Depart of Defense only

21 2009 Fiscal Year Total Outlays (Federal Funds): $2,650 billion MILITARY: 54% and $1,449 billion NON-MILITARY: 46% and $1,210 billion Current military” includes Dept. of Defense ($653 billion), the military portion from other departments ($150 billion), and an additional $162 billion to supplement the Budget’s misleading and vast underestimate of only $38 billion for the “war on terror.” “Past military” represents veterans’ benefits plus 80% of the interest on the debt.

22 U.S. Military Spending vs. The World
U.S. military spending – Dept. of Defense plus nuclear weapons – is equal to the military spending of the next 15 countries combined. U.S. share of: --Military spending : 47 % of the world’s total --GDP: about 21 % of the world’s total

23 What Can We Do? Write to your representatives to Congress sponsor a hearing on sexual violence committed by US military in Okinawa --redirect of the use of tax money away from the military Spread the word in your community --Living Along the Fencleine --Visit websites and blogs Follow news and write to news organizations Other ideas?

24 Thank you!

25 U.S. military spending In 2011, the United States spends 58 percent of the total defense dollars paid out by the world's top 10 military powers, which combined for $1.19 trillion in military funding in With its unparalleled global reach, the US outspends China, the next-biggest military power, by nearly 6-to-1.

26 How the Network Got Started
year-old girl abducted & raped by 3 US servicemen in Okinawa Okinawan women’s “peace caravan” – SF, Washington, DC, NYC, Honolulu International meeting in Okinawa – Okinawa, South Korea, Philippines, Japan, continental U.S.

27 Past Network Meetings 1997 Okinawa
Washington, D.C. – “East Asia-U.S. Women’s Network against U.S. Militarism” Okinawa – Puerto Rican activist joined the meeting  “East Asia-U.S.-Puerto Rico Women’s Network against U.S. Militarism” South Korea – hosted by SAFE Korea (new coalition of women’s groups)

28 Past Network Meetings - 2
Philippines – hosted by Philippine Women’s Network for Peace and Security --Hawai’i joined South Korea, Puerto Rico, the United States, and the Philippines San Francisco – hosted by Women for Genuine Security -- Guam/Guahan joined South Korea, Japan, Okinawa, Puerto Rico, US, and Philippines

29 Past Network Meetings - 3
Guam/Guahan –hosted by 9 local groups -- Women from Australia & Republic of Belau joined Okinawa, South Korea, Puerto Rico, Hawai'i, Philippines, Japan, U.S. 2012 Puerto Rico

30 Historical Context Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam -- colonized by Spain. 1898 Treaty of Paris (Spanish-American War)-- ceded to the United States World War II -- Philippines and Guam were occupied first by Japan and then by the United States

31 Historical Context - 2 Philippines – independence in 1946
Guam & Puerto Rico – “unincorporated territories” of US -- US citizenship (P.R. 1917; Guam:1950 ) -- No voting rights in presidential elections -- A delegate in House of Representatives with limited voting privileges

32 Historical Context - 3 Japanese colonialism and militarism
Okinawa, South Korea, Philippines, Guam -- colonized or occupied by Japan Hawai’i was attached by Japanese warplanes in 1941

33 Military Bases and Tourism
Commonalities among Guam, Hawai’i, Okinawa (& P.R.) Climate & Vegetation U.S. military presence Tourism industry

34 Issues Military toxics & environmental contamination
-- Radioactive materials -- Chemicals -- Noise pollution Health issues -- Cancers (Vieques, P.R., Guam, Texas) -- Cerebral palsy (Philippines)

35 Issues - 2 Violence against women & girls
Rape of 12-year-old girl in Okinawa Rape of Nichole J. (22) in Philippines -- Many unreported cases (e.g., Yumi in film) Other crimes US tank killed 2 junior high school girls in South Korea -- Military planes/helicopter crashes -- Thefts, burglary, robbery

36 Issues - 3 Amerasian children--Philippines, Okinawa, South Korea
-- US soldier-father does not: *acknowledge child *provide child support -- Discrimination in host countries * esp. children of African American soldiers -- No int’l agreement b/w US & host countries

37 Issues - 4 Military budget -- U.S. : 48% of federal budget
-- Japan: “sympathy budget” (Japan pays for rent, Japanese employees, etc.) in addition to “Host Nation Support” Military recruitment – ROTC, JROTC Distorted local economy dependence on the military

38 Activities International meetings & reports back Education Campaigns
-- anti-militarism fashion show (WGS, SF, Guam) -- peace caravan (Okinawan women) -- postcards (South Korea, WGS) -- documentary films (South Korea, WGS) Campaigns -- Support for Lolas, Nicole J (Philippines) -- !000 letters to 1000 fathers of Amerasian children (Philippines) --Bumper sticker campaign (Guam)

39 Activities Research & publication
Five-language peace activist dictionary Lobbying Letter writing Petitions/resolutions -- Resolution demanding release of political prisoner (Puerto Rico) Statements -- Statement issued after 3.11 (less military spending and more resources for relief)

40 Activities Work with prostituted women
--Training & job training (Philippines) -- Alternative work & store (Philippines) -- Counseling (South Korea, Philippines) -- Health care (South Korea) -- Art therapy (South Korea) Art – quilts, fabric art, mandala, collective painting, dance, music Websites, Facebook Collaboration with other groups -- Co-sponsor event with Code Pink (WGS) -- Collaborate with the Occupy movement?

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