2. Genetic Engineering: is a way of cutting DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or different species. Enzymes are used to cut, copy, and move segments of DNA.
Steps 1.The DNA containing the desired gene must be cut away from the genes surrounding it by restriction enzymes. 2.The piece of DNA is combined with a piece of DNA from the recipient organism to form recombinant DNA. 3.The recombinant DNA is inserted into the new organism, which uses the gene.
Genetic engineering involves removing a desirable gene from a cell, adding it to the gene structure of a bacterial cell, and replacing the recombinant DNA into the bacterial cell. The bacteria then have the capability to produce the chemical produced by the original animal or plant cell. inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes; an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from the recombinant cell
Chunkie Time! Describe the process of genetic engineering. What chemicals are used to cut the DNA? What are the 3 steps involved? What is the new combined DNA called? What happens if the host organism reproduces?
What do the bacteria at step 5 have the capability to do?
Importance of Genetic Engineering genetically engineered bacteria can be used in healthcare to produce hormones, medicines, and other products to treat diseases; Recombinant bacteria are currently used to produce: *human growth hormone to treat dwarfism *insulin to treat diabetes
genetically engineered bacteria can be used in industry to break down pollutants into harmless products; some bacteria are used to clean up oil spills
Farmers have also been helped by genetic engineering. Genes have been inserted into plants that make them resistant to disease and harmful insects.
Mosquitoes may, in the near future, be genetically engineered to produce the vaccine for malaria. Therefore instead of giving the disease to people, the mosquitoes will be immunizing them!
Chunkie Time! How are recombinant bacteria used in healthcare? Explain how the medicine is made. How are recombinant bacteria used in industry? How is genetic engineering used in agriculture? Explain how resistant crops are made.