2 SymptomsSevere and sudden pain in the upper right abdomen and possibly the upper back.Intermittent or recurring indigestionFever and shiveringSevere nausea and vomitingAbdominal fullnessExcess gasHeartburnIndigestion
3 SymptomsJaundice; yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes due to an increase of bile pigments in the bloodWhen your doctor tells you during an X- Ray or blood test
4 Prevention Gallstones can block: Hepatic ducts, which lead out of the liverCystic duct, which leads in and out of the gallbladderCommon bile duct, which takes bile from the liver and gallbladder (hepatic and cystic ducts) to the small intestine
5 Prevention Healthy diet and exercise High in fiber, low in fat to prevent gallstone formationRaw fruits and vegetables, cooked dried beans, whole- grain cereals.
6 PreventionOlive oilHelps to reduce cholesterol and prevent gallstone formationLecithinNatural thickener in ice cream, mayonnaise that prevents cholesterol buildup in the gallbladderFound in: Soybeans, oatmeal, eggs, milk, peanuts, cabbage, chocolate.
7 Prevention Drinks: Alcohol, low to moderate consumption (less than 2 drinks per day)CoffeeLowest risk for gallstones: men who drink 2 or more cups per dayNo significant benefit for womenOther caffeinated beverages do not have the same benefits as coffee
8 Causes Gallstones are usually formed in the gallbladder Can form anywhere bile there is bileCan be moved with bile
9 CausesBileBrown or greenish fluid that helps the body break down fatty foodsMade up of primarily cholesterol and bile acidProduced by the liverStored and released by the gallbladder
10 Causes Formation of Gallstones Cholesterol Gallstones High fat diets imbalance between cholesterol and bile acids in bileCholesterol solidifies into gallstonesLow fat diets gallbladder not used frequentlyCholesterol has more time to solidifyPigment Gallstones = Calcium + Bilirubin
12 Causes Growth of Gallstones Undissolved cholesterol sticking together Forms particles of cholesterol that grow in sizepatients with gallstones form particles of cholesterol more rapidly than individuals without gallstonesreduced contraction and emptying of the gallbladderC27H46O
13 Treatment Usually only necessary if the gallstones are symptomatic Nonsurgical Therapy – can destroy an existing gallstone, but does not prevent new ones from forming.Bile Salt (tablet): can dissolve stones formed from cholesterol. May take months to years to remove the stone.Contact dissolution: drug is injected directly into the gallbladder with a catheter. Takes only a few hours.Surgical Removal – the gallbladder is not an essential organ, so if gallstones are recurring, it may be removed. Only treatment that prevents future gallstones
14 Alternative Treatment Acupuncture – can relieve pain from gallstonesChinese Herbs – can dissolve small gallstones (ex. Pyrrosia leaf and rhubarb)Diet – weight reduction is a good way to avoid gallstone development
15 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder (minimally invasive) - small incision is made near the belly button, and a laparoscope (video camera) and incision instruments enter the body through this cut - gallbladder is carefully separated from other organs and removed through the abdomen - one of the safest operations (2% complication rate) - recovery period about 1 week
16 BibliographySimon, Harvey, ed. "Gallstones." New York Times. 26 June Web. 13 Dec < cholecystitis-gallstones/prevention.html?print=1>.Somerville, Robert, ed. "Gallstones." The Medical Advisor: The Complete Guide to Alternative & Conventional Treatments. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, Print.Marks, Jay W. "Gallstones, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment by MedicineNet.com." Ed. Dennis Lee. 14 DecSomerville, Robert, ed. "Gallstones." The Medical Advisor: The Complete Guide to Alternative & Conventional Treatments. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, Print
17 Bibliography (Cont.) Images: Slide 1 for Causes: Slide 2 for Causes: "Gallbladder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. 14 DecSlide 2 for Causes:"File:Cholestasis 2 high mag.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 DecSlide 3 for Causes:"File:Gallstones.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 DecSlide 4 for Causes:"File:Ultrasound Scan ND 243.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 DecSlide 5 for Causes:"Cholesterol , What is Cholesterol ? About its Science, Chemistry and Structure." Chemistry, Structures & 3D 3Dchem.com - Home. 14 Dec
18 Bibliography (Cont.) Images: system.com/images/colorful_produce.jpg (Fruits and Vegetables)(Whole-Grain Cereal)(Olive Oil)(Eggs)(Coffee)(Digestive system diagram)(Gallastones)(Human body)htmlabdomen.html (gallstone X-ray)