Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Gallstones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gallstones

2 Symptoms Severe and sudden pain in the upper right abdomen and possibly the upper back. Intermittent or recurring indigestion Fever and shivering Severe nausea and vomiting Abdominal fullness Excess gas Heartburn Indigestion

3 Symptoms Jaundice; yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes due to an increase of bile pigments in the blood When your doctor tells you during an X- Ray or blood test

4 Prevention Gallstones can block:
Hepatic ducts, which lead out of the liver Cystic duct, which leads in and out of the gallbladder Common bile duct, which takes bile from the liver and gallbladder (hepatic and cystic ducts) to the small intestine

5 Prevention Healthy diet and exercise
High in fiber, low in fat to prevent gallstone formation Raw fruits and vegetables, cooked dried beans, whole- grain cereals.

6 Prevention Olive oil Helps to reduce cholesterol and prevent gallstone formation Lecithin Natural thickener in ice cream, mayonnaise that prevents cholesterol buildup in the gallbladder Found in: Soybeans, oatmeal, eggs, milk, peanuts, cabbage, chocolate.

7 Prevention Drinks: Alcohol, low to moderate consumption
(less than 2 drinks per day) Coffee Lowest risk for gallstones: men who drink 2 or more cups per day No significant benefit for women Other caffeinated beverages do not have the same benefits as coffee

8 Causes Gallstones are usually formed in the gallbladder
Can form anywhere bile there is bile Can be moved with bile

9 Causes Bile Brown or greenish fluid that helps the body break down fatty foods Made up of primarily cholesterol and bile acid Produced by the liver Stored and released by the gallbladder

10 Causes Formation of Gallstones Cholesterol Gallstones
High fat diets  imbalance between cholesterol and bile acids in bile Cholesterol solidifies into gallstones Low fat diets  gallbladder not used frequently Cholesterol has more time to solidify Pigment Gallstones = Calcium + Bilirubin

11 Causes Factors Gender Age Obesity Pregnancy Hormone Levels
Rapid Weight Loss Crohn’s Disease Increased Blood Triglycerides

12 Causes Growth of Gallstones Undissolved cholesterol sticking together
Forms particles of cholesterol that grow in size patients with gallstones form particles of cholesterol more rapidly than individuals without gallstones reduced contraction and emptying of the gallbladder C27H46O

13 Treatment Usually only necessary if the gallstones are symptomatic
Nonsurgical Therapy – can destroy an existing gallstone, but does not prevent new ones from forming. Bile Salt (tablet): can dissolve stones formed from cholesterol. May take months to years to remove the stone. Contact dissolution: drug is injected directly into the gallbladder with a catheter. Takes only a few hours. Surgical Removal – the gallbladder is not an essential organ, so if gallstones are recurring, it may be removed. Only treatment that prevents future gallstones

14 Alternative Treatment
Acupuncture – can relieve pain from gallstones Chinese Herbs – can dissolve small gallstones (ex. Pyrrosia leaf and rhubarb) Diet – weight reduction is a good way to avoid gallstone development

15 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder (minimally invasive) - small incision is made near the belly button, and a laparoscope (video camera) and incision instruments enter the body through this cut - gallbladder is carefully separated from other organs and removed through the abdomen - one of the safest operations (2% complication rate) - recovery period about 1 week

16 Bibliography Simon, Harvey, ed. "Gallstones." New York Times. 26 June Web. 13 Dec < cholecystitis-gallstones/prevention.html?print=1>. Somerville, Robert, ed. "Gallstones." The Medical Advisor: The Complete Guide to Alternative & Conventional Treatments. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, Print. Marks, Jay W. "Gallstones, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment by" Ed. Dennis Lee. 14 Dec Somerville, Robert, ed. "Gallstones." The Medical Advisor: The Complete Guide to Alternative & Conventional Treatments. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, Print

17 Bibliography (Cont.) Images: Slide 1 for Causes: Slide 2 for Causes:
"Gallbladder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. 14 Dec Slide 2 for Causes: "File:Cholestasis 2 high mag.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 Dec Slide 3 for Causes: "File:Gallstones.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 Dec Slide 4 for Causes: "File:Ultrasound Scan ND 243.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 Dec Slide 5 for Causes: "Cholesterol , What is Cholesterol ? About its Science, Chemistry and Structure." Chemistry, Structures & 3D - Home. 14 Dec

18 Bibliography (Cont.) Images: (Fruits and Vegetables) (Whole-Grain Cereal) (Olive Oil) (Eggs) (Coffee) (Digestive system diagram) (Gallastones) (Human body) htmlabdomen.html (gallstone X-ray)

Download ppt "Gallstones."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google