14-2 Overview Reporting orally Making formal speeches Preparing to speak Using visuals Giving team (collaborative) presentations Presenting virtually
14-3 Reporting Orally Spoken communication of factual business information and its interpretation Differences Between Oral and Written Reports – Visual Advantages – Reader Control – Emphasis
14-4 Planning the Oral Report Plan oral reports just as you do written ones. Determine your objective. State its factors. Organize the report: indirect or direct order. Divide the body based on your objective. Use introductory/concluding paragraphs.
14-5 Making Formal Speeches Speak on a topic in your area of specialization and of interest to your audience. – Topics assigned to you can include A welcome address. Delivery of acceptance of and honor or award. An announcement of a charity drive. – Topics you pick should reflect Your background and knowledge. The audience’s interests. The occasion of the speech.
14-6 Making Formal Speeches Gather information: libraries, company files, the Internet, interviews. Organize – Introduction – Body – Conclusion
14-7 Making Formal Speeches: Introduction Use an appropriate greeting (“Good morning”). Arouse interest. – Story – Humor – Quotation – Question Introduce the subject (theme). Prepare the reader to receive the message.
14-8 Making Formal Speeches: Body & Conclusion Body – Divide the whole into comparable parts. – Apply conventional relationships of data (time, place, quantity, factor, combination). – Use factors for presenting issues and questions. – Connect major points with transitions. Conclusion – Restate the subject. – Summarize. – Consider using a climactic close.
14-9 Making Formal Speeches: Delivery Extemporaneous: usually best Memorizing: risky Reading: difficult and unnatural
14-10 Preparing to Speak Extemporaneous: from notes, rehearsed Memorized: the most difficult, hazardous Reading: typically dull, mechanical
14-11 Audience Analysis Preliminary – Number of audience members – Characteristics (education level, gender, age, etc.) During the presentation – Respond to feedback (smiles, frowns, blank stares, applause). – Adjust as you speak to accommodate feedback.
14-12 Consideration of Personal Aspects Confidence – Preparing well – Dressing appropriately – Talking in strong, clear tones Sincerity Thoroughness Friendliness
14-13 Appearance and Physical Actions The communication environment—the things that surround you as you speak Your appearance—how the audience sees you – Posture – Walking – Facial expressions – Gestures
14-14 Using the Voice Effectively Vary Pitch. Change Speaking Speed. Use Vocal Emphasis. Develop Pleasant Voice Quality. Imitate speakers you admire. Analyze your speeches and develop plans for improvement.
14-15 Use of Visuals Use of visuals is determined by the – Content of the report or presentation. – Cost. – Audience size. – Ease of preparation. – Facilities and technology available.
14-16 Using Visuals: Techniques Select the types that do the best job. Blend the visuals into your speech, making certain that the audience sees and understands them. Organize visuals as a part of the message. Emphasize the visuals by pointing to them. Talk to the audience, not the visuals. Do not block your audience’s view of the visuals. Use PowerPoint to enhance content.
14-17 Team Presentations Plan to incorporate ideas on individual speeches and collaborative writing. Plan order and content. Plan physical factors. Plan staging. Plan a closing and Q & A session. Plan to rehearse the presentation.
14-18 Presenting Virtually Virtual Presentation – A presentation delivered from a desktop over the Internet to an audience anywhere in the world
14-19 Delivering a Virtual Presentation Before the presentation – Plan for the technology being used. – Mail announcements to the audience. – Test the technology. – Secure technical and non technical support to be available during the meeting. – Have material for early arrivers to view. During the delivery – Plan interaction with polling or quizzing. – Take regular breaks for feedback and questions. – Be attentive to the feedback from the audience and adjust the pace of the delivery. – Allow ample time for both questions and evaluation.
14-20 Everything becomes a little different as soon as it is spoken out loud. —Hermann Hesse