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Exam Topics Related to India

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1 Exam Topics Related to India
REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY Exam Topics Related to India


3 The Importance of Culture In India
Culture describes how people live their lives Can include descriptions of ethnic origin, language, religion, foods, festivals India has 1.2 Billion people and its population is growing Its culture has been influenced by British colonialism, European migrants and migrants from other parts of Asia

4 India - Culture There is cultural Diversity throughout India
Several different regions can be recognised by the differences in Language and Religion There are over 1,600 languages spoken in India Language – India can be divided into 2 Regions from a language perspective. In the far north of India in the mountainous regions, (Himalayas) people speak languages related to Tibetan and Chinese In Southern Regions, people speak Dravidian languages.

5 India - Culture The Dravidian language group has over 200 million speakers and is unrelated to other languages used in India Hindi is the official language of India and is spoken throughout the country English was brought to India with the British colonisation and is still the language of Business and Commerce

6 India - Culture Religion – Also used to define regions in India
India has 2 main religions – Hinduism and Muslim Majority of people are Hindi and this religion is found throughout the country A minority of the population is Muslim and they tend to live in the north along the Indus and Ganges river plains They would have tended to settle along the north as their ancestors would have been Muslim traders from the east People living in this region converted to Ilam over the yearsa

7 India - Culture 1947 after independence from Britain the region was divided into 2 States – India and Pakistan Pakistan is the Islamic state and India is the Hindu state. However, the partition has caused many problems. Over 12 million people were displaced and moved between regions as they did not wish to remain in the newly – created states They wished to be with people of their own religion Muslims moved to Pakistan and Hindus moved to India.

8 The Development of Mumbai
Mumbai is in western India It is an island Mega-City with 23 million people The second largest city in the world after Tokyo Originally made up of seven islands joined together by reclaimed land In the 17th century trade with Britain and Europe lead to a significant growth of the city

9 Mumbai Mumbai was controlled by the East India Trading company – developed it into a major trading port and built sea defences The city attracted many merchants from Europe and Asia – it was politically stable and allowed religious freedom Mumbai had a population of 60,000 by end of 17th century

10 Mumbai Religious conflict between Muslims and Hindis in 19th century forced many people to flee to Mumbai from other areas of the subcontinent The beginning of Rural-Urban migration and this led to a large increase in the population The second half of the 19th century saw the development of cotton spinning and weaving to supply the British Empire with textiles Mumbai developed further with the opening of the Suez Canal in Egypt which made the transport distance between Mumbai and Europe much shorter It became a stop-off point between Europe and Asia

11 Mumbai Nowadays it is the Financial Capital of India
The centre of Bollywood Film Industry – much more substantial than Hollywood The largest port in India – 25% of India’s International Trade The rapid growth though has caused problems which are typical of Mega-Cities – Pollution/Crime/Slums (Bustees) Almost 10 Million live in slums in Mumbai

12 Mumbai Dharavi is the largest slum in Mumbai
It originated as an area where migrants from rural areas of India first settled. They did not have money or permission to locate here but did so anyway Dharavi was originally a swamp on the edge of the city but now is a prime development area in the city of Mumbai It is a problem for planners and developers

13 Mumbai State officials have planned to demolish Dharavi and move the slum residents to apartments elsewhere in Mumbai They have planned an 800 Million Euro development of Business Parks/Restaurants/Universities/Hotels for the site However, before this happens they must build new areas for the slum dwellers to relocate They plan to develop new suburbs on the edge of the city which may further increase Urban Sprawl

14 Agriculrure in India

15 Factors Affecting Agriculture in India
2 Factors – Climate and Soils Factor 1: Climate A Tropical climate with highs of degrees celcius throughout the year which influences the types of crops grown The climate allows for the growth of crops such as: Rice and Sugar Cane which require high temperatures The amount of rainfall in India is controlled by the effect of Monsoon

16 India - Agriculture Monsoon is a reversal of wind patterns over the continent which creates 2 seasons Wet season – June-September and Dry season October – June The monsoon rains control the type of crops grown by people and when they can be planted or harvested If the rains are late or bring low rainfall, irrigation, planting and crop yields are affected In the Wet season thirsty crops such as Rice are grown in the Eastern half of India along the Ganges Valley and the Eastern Ghats Rainfall can total over 2,500mm In the Dry season Millet is grown throughout India

17 India Agriculture In drier regions of the North-West, Wheat, Maize, Chickpeas are grown Tropical climate is also suited to Tea Production. Asam State in in the North-East is a major supplier of tea to world markets The extreme North-West has the Thar Desert and the desert soils are unsuited to most crops. However, Cotton and Millet bare grown in areas where irrigation is used

18 India - Agriculture Factor 2: Soils
Soils have an influence on the pattern of agricultural production in India In South-West (Kerala State) deep fertile soils are found. They are used for the production of coffee. It is the largest coffee producing state in India In the Ganges Valley the soils are wet, clay, rich in alluvium. A result of the Ganges flooding its floodplain annually In very far North, the high relief (mountains) has caused the formation of thin, infertile soils and results in subsistence farming – eg Goat Herding

19 Agriculture - India Northern States of Assam/Himachal/Pradesh have well drained, well aerated, red coloured soils and are used for Tea Production

20 India - Secondary Activities
SteelProduction/Electronics/Pharmaceuticals/Software 2 Factors have influenced industrial development – Government Influence Availability of Raw Materials Indian secondary sector was very underdeveloped prior to independence in 1947 Most industrial development was focused on food processing and textiles

21 Secondary Activities Only 2% of the workforce was employed in manufacturing Industry was located in Colonial cities established by British -- Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai Post Independence Government policy was to spread industry across India and into rural areas This was done by investment in local craft industries and food processing – Labour Intensive Industries

22 Secondary Activities These industries used locally sourced raw materials Also developed fertiliser production and manufacture of agricultural machinery Despite this Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai remain the main drivers of secondary activities

23 Secondary Activities India has major advantages for Industry – eg. Resources and large supply of Labour Well-educated – but low-cost workforce Indian government has invested heavily in education and Indians value education very highly India has more third level graduates than USA and Canada combined About 40% have engineering and science degrees

24 Secondary Activities These advantages have attracted many multinational companies in the high-tech- software sector/Back Office Operations Skilled Indian graduates can be employed at less than one third of the cost of European or American workers Bangalore is the centre of the Indian software with high profile companies like IBM located there – India’s Silicon Valley

25 Secondary Activities Raw materials are widely available throughout India for traditional industries Iron Ore and Coal near Kolkata – as a result Kolkata is the centre of Iron and Steel Industry – TATA STEEL CO. Transport has also helped develop industry – Infrastructure is very poor outside the main cities especially roads Industries therefore locate in the major cities as transport network is superior Mumbai is the main port. Pharmaceutical Industry is located in Mumbai to take advantage of this and keep costs low

26 India - Tourism Largest service industry in India – 10% of employment and 6% GDP Approximately 5 million tourists visit annually – USA and UK are main visitors 2 Factors have influenced the development of tourism in India – Physical Factors Human Factors

27 India - Tourism Very varied landscape due to its vast size eg. Mountains, river valleys, plateaux, desert, rainforest, beaches Himalayas attract thousands of climbers and trekkers to Northern India every year Eco-tourism is a developing sector in the south – west of the country Likewise the beaches in the south are extremely attractive for tourists and offer great potential Goa in the South – West is a renowned holiday resort

28 India - Tourism Human attractions are quite diverse in India
The ‘Golden Triangle’ of the cities of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur in Northern India attract many tourists. They are well connected by trains and luxury coaches Kerala in the south has many temple festivals throughout the year which attract religious tourists and is a popular honeymoon destination

29 India - Tourism Tourism in India has its problems – Poverty in the mega-cities has restricted people form visiting in large numbers Internal tourism has yet to grow as so many people cannot afford to take holidays in India India is a long-haul destination for Europeans and Americans and the distance and expense restrict tourists from coming in larger numbers

30 India - Tourism Terrorist bombings – eg. Mumbai in 2008 have had a negative impact on foreign tourists The Indian Tourism Development Plan has been established to promote India as a destination abroad. It aims to increase international tourist numbers to 8 million by 2015 Improved airport access and development of luxury hotels in cities like Mumbai and Bangalore will help as will the development of the road infrastructure Since 2000 there has been an increase of internal tourism due to wealthy IT workers from Bangalore and Chennai heading to the south-west coast on ‘Monsoon Holidays’

31 India – Population Distribution
India has a population of aprx. 1.2 Billion but it is unevenly distributed The 2 main reasons for the uneven distribution are (1)Physical factors – Climate/Relief (2) Human Factors – Availability of jobs and services Population density is highest along the river valleys, in the narrow coastal plains and in the cities and their hinterlands Population density is lowest in the Himalays region of the North and The Thar desert area of the North - West

32 India - Population The most densely populated zone is along the Indus and Ganges river valleys The population density here is over 250 per square km The region has a constant supply water, fertile alluvial soils and flat land Millions of people live here and survive by intensive subsistence rice farming Another are of high population density is along the narrow coastal plains of the Eastern and Western Ghats The region has intensive rice farming and commercial farming of Tea, Coconuts and Cotton There are lots of plantations of these cash crops so density is loqwer here than in the river valleys

33 India - Population The main cities of Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai have very high population densities Kolkata has a density of over 2,050 per square km – this is mainly due to the high rate of rural-urban migration Poor people move to the cities in search of a better life – work/education/ Cities such as Chennai and Bangalore attract lots of internal and international migrants seeking work in IT sector Mumbai is India’s largest port and has many port-related jobs that attract migrants The high relief of the Himalayas is the main reason for low population density in Northern India

34 India - Population The steep slopes, snow-covered land, poor soils and poor road infrastructure discourage settlement here The low population density of 100 per square km in the North-East is mainly due to the Thar Desert Lack of water prevents agriculture and the population is dispersed among the small communities where water is available

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