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MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES

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1 MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES
CLIMATE SOIL NATURAL VEGETATION WATER RESOURCES MINERAL AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES TRANSPORT ANY 5

2 CLIMATE OF INDIA GREAT VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL
RECEIVE RAIN BY SEASONAL WINDS- MONSOON

3 FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
LATITUDE Tropic of Cancer passing through India Sub-Tropical climate

4 FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
HIMALAYAS Block the South west monsoon Block the bitterly cold winds coming from Central Asia Hence facilitate HT-LP region on the sub-continent to attract monsoon winds ARAKAN YOMA - Divert the South West Monsoon winds towards North Indian Plains ARAVALLIS Parallel to Direction of South West Monsoon Results into dry climate in Rajasthan (Specially Western) WESTERN GHATS Block the South West Monsoon Winds More Rainfall towards Western slopes Less Rainfall towards Eastern Slopes

5 FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
RELIEF Hill Stations remain cool during summer due to their elevation WATER BODIES Coastal Regions have Equable/Maritime/Moderate climate Interior Regions have Extreme/Continental Climate WESTERN DISTURBANCES Originate over Mediterranean Sea During Winter – December-January Cause cyclonic rainfall in Punjab and Haryana

6 FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
WINDS SW MONSOON – On-Shore winds Blow during June to September over Indian Subcontinent Bring lot of rain NE MONSOON Off-Shore Winds for most parts of Indian Subcontinent Blow during December to February Bring rain in Tamilnadu

7 THE INDIAN SUMMER TIME March to May PRESSURE GRADIENTS
Low Pressure over North Indian Plain Slight HP on Indian Peninsula Comparative HP over Indian Ocean WINDS - Winds not attracted towards Indian Subcontinent due to HP on Peninsula RAINFALL Little rainfall in Kerala and West Bengal EVENTS KALBAISAKHI- Cyclonic rain in West Bengal Mango Shower- Pre-Monsoon Rain in Kerala (Good for Mango ripening) Loo- Hot and Dry winds in Northern Plains (FATAL)

8 L P THE INDIAN SUMMER H P H P H P LOO March to May KALBAISAKHI
MANGO SHOWER H P H P

9 THE INDIAN MONSOON TIME JUNE TO SEPTEMBER PRESSURE GRADIENTS
Low Pressure over Entire sub-continent Comparative HP over Indian Ocean WINDS Warm and moist winds blow from Indian Ocean to Indian Sub-continent. Divide in two branches- Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal RAINFALL Heavy rainfall Western slopes of Western Ghats Eastern Mountains West Bengal

10 THE INDIAN MONSOON JUNE TO SEP L P L P H P H P

11 THE RETREATING MONSOON
OCT AND NOV OCTOBER HEAT L P L P H P H P

12 THE INDIAN WINTER TIME DECEMBER TO FEBRUARY PRESSURE GRADIENTS
High Pressure over Entire sub-continent Comparative LP over Indian Ocean WINDS Offshore winds move from Indian Sub-continent to Indian Ocean. North East to South West RAINFALL Winds collect moisture from Bay of Bengal and rain in Tamilnadu. WESTERN DISTURBANCES Originate over Mediterranean Sea Bring frontal rain in Punjab & Haryana Move along foothill of Himalayas and join NE monsoons

13 THE INDIAN WINTER HP H P L P L P WESTERN DISTURBANCES DEC TO FEB
NORTH EAST MONSOON L P L P

14 CH 02 SOILS OF INDIA

15 Importance of Components OF SOIL
Minerals Give colour and texture to the soil Humus Give fertility to the soil Moisture Dissolve minerals so that plants can absorb them Air Allows respiration for plants

16 Sandy Soil > 60% sand; < 10% clay Well aerated
Easier to cultivate Dries up easily Suitable for growth of fruits and vegetables

17 Clayey Soil > 60% clay; < 10% sand
Good moisture retention capacity Difficult to cultivate

18 Loamy Soil 50% sand; 50% clay Well aerated Easier to cultivate
Good moisture retention capacity Suitable for growth of all kinds of crops

19 Alluvial Soil ONLY TRANSPORTED SOIL Inland Alluvium (Ganga Basin)
Coarse texture Rich in Potash, Alumina and Lime Poor in Nitrogen and Phosphorus LOAMY TEXTURE Deltaic Alluvium (Delta) Rich in Potash, Alumina and Lime ONLY SOIL RICH in Nitrogen and Phosphorus Coastal Alluvium (Eastern and Western Coast)

20 Khaddar (Newer alluvium): Bhangar (Older alluvium):
Alluvial Soil - Types Khaddar (Newer alluvium): It is found in the lower lands in the plains. It is loamy, porous and MORE FERTILE than Bhangar as new layers are deposited year after year during floods. Bhangar (Older alluvium): It is found in the higher parts of the plains on river terraces away from rivers. It contains lumps, is clayey, non-porous and LESS FERTILE than Khaddar.

21 BLACK Soil SEDENTARY (INSITU) SOIL Rich in LIMCAP
- Good moisture retention capacity - Hard when dry - Sticky when wet - Difficult to cultivate SEDENTARY (INSITU) SOIL CLAYEY TEXTURE WEATHERING OF BASALT ROCKS Rich in LIMCAP Poor in Nitrogen and Phosphorus Good for growth of cotton, sugarcane, groundnut, tobacco, etc. BLACK COLOUR DUE TO IRON

22 red Soil SEDENTARY (INSITU) SOIL Rich in IRON
TEXTURE could be loamy or clayey WEATHERING OF OLD METAMORPHIC ROCKS Rich in IRON Poor in Nitrogen and Phosphorus Suitable for dry farming Pulses, Rice, Cotton etc can be grown RED COLOUR DUE TO IRON OXIDE

23 LEACHING of Silicates due to heavy rain REDISH TO YELLOWISH IN COLOUR
Laterite soil Acidic Lime and silica are reduced Iron and Alumina proportion increases TEXTURE - loamy LEACHING of Silicates due to heavy rain Poor in Nitrogen and Phosphorus Coffee, Rubber, Cashewnuts can be cultivated REDISH TO YELLOWISH IN COLOUR

24 MOUNTAIN soil Acidic Rich in Iron and Humus Poor in lime and potash
Immature Soil Large pieces of regolith which are not well mixed with humus Apples, plums, cherries etc can be grown Highly porous and permeable

25 High proportion of salt
DESERT soil TRANSPORTED SOIL ALKALINE IN NATURE SANDY Formed by erosion and deposition of sand Millets, wheat, etc can be grown with the use of fertilisers and irrigation High proportion of salt

26 Marshy Soil Found in Constantly waterlogged Contains iron and salts
Sunderbans of West Bengal Coastal areas of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu Terai belt of U.P. Constantly waterlogged Contains iron and salts Good for cultivation of jute

27 Causes of Soil Erosion Natural Causes Human causes Topography Rainfall
Nature of Soil Human causes Deforestation Overgrazing Improper farming techniques

28 Conservation of Soil Afforestation Restricted grazing
Proper farming techniques Terrace farming Construction of bunds Contour ploughing Strip Cropping Dams for flood control

29 Soil Erosion in India Shiwaliks North-Eastern States
Due to deforestation North-Eastern States Heavy Rainfall River banks of Ganga, Yamuna, Chambal Floods, sudden rainfall after long, dry spells Arid Regions Fast blowing wind, little vegetation Hills of South India Defective methods of cultivation

30 Soil Conservation Schemes in India
Integrated Watershed Management Reclamation and Development of Ravine areas Control of Shifting agriculture

31 CH 3: Natural Vegetation
Vegetation that grows without the interference of man adapts itself to the limitations of the natural environment Distribution of Natural Vegetation Climate Soil Topography

32 Utility of Natural Vegetation
Purify air Transpires moisture Prevent global warming Checks soil erosion Natural habitat for animals Provides forest products Aesthetic pleasure

33 NATURAL VEGETATION IN INDIA
Tropical Evergreen forests Tropical Deciduous or Monsoon Forests Tropical Dry forests Delta or Tidal forests Mountain forests

34 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS
CHARACTERISTICS Dense growth Dark floor Large leaves Massive variety (not in pure strands) Heights vary Valuable hardwood CLIMATE Temperature - 24 ˚C to 27 ˚C Rainfall cm ROSEWOOD Hard, durable and fine grained Used for making expensive furniture Found in windward part of Western Ghats SHISHAM Hard wood Making expensive furniture House building, railway sleepers Found in West Bengal and Andaman & Nicobar

35 TROPICAL DECIDUOUS VEGETATION
CHARACTERISTICS Leaves shed in Spring Pure strands, Not very dense Economically very important CLIMATE Found in areas of seasonal rainfall Requires cm of rainfall Also called Monsoon Vegetation TEAK Durable timber Ship Building and Furniture MP, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu SAL Hard Wood, Immune to white ant Railway sleepers MP, Chhatisgarh, Orissa, Assam SANDALWOOD Handicrafts, Oil used for perfumery Karnataka SEMAL Soft and White Timber Match Boxes and Packing cases Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu MYROBALAN Fruits used for Dyeing of cotton, wool and silk & Tanning MP, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh

36 TROPICAL DESERT VEGETATION
CHARACTERISTICS Long roots Small leaves Hard thorns Sharp spines Trees widely spaced Adapt to long dry periods CLIMATE 25 ˚C to 30 ˚C < 25 mm rainfall BABUL Yields gum Bark used for tanning Rajasthan, Gujarat, SW Punjab KIKAR Firewood Medicinal uses

37 TIDAL VEGETATION Trunk supported by stilted roots
CHARACTERISTICS Trunk supported by stilted roots Roots visible during low tide Some forests are dense Pneumatophore- Breathing roots REQUIREMENT Deltaic region, SUNDARI Flavouring agent Wood used to make boats, houses, firewood Deltas of Ganga, Godavari Andaman & Nicobar KIKAR Roofing Making bags

38 MOUNTAIN VEGETATION Needle like leaves Large trunk Conical canopy
CHARACTERISTICS Needle like leaves Large trunk Conical canopy Fruits cone shaped REQUIREMENT Cold temperatures, Mountains CHIR PINE Extraction of resin Used for making turpentine, tea chest HP, Uttaranchal, J & K, Sikkim SILVER FIR Paper, pulp, matches NW and Eastern Himalayas DEODAR Railway sleepers Construction HP and J & K

39 CONSERVATION OF FORESTS

40

41 Change in forest cover in tribal areas - India

42 REASONS DIMINISHING NATURAL VEGETATION
DEFORESTATION FOREST FIRES MINING OVERGRAZING

43

44 CONSERVATION OF NATURAL VEGETATION
Proper use of forest resources without causing any adverse effect on our economy environment Forest Research Institutes Dehradun Coimbatore Joint Forest Management Involvement of Local communities in forest conservation Allow controlled access Local institution protects degraded forest Beneficiaries of non timber forest product

45 FOREST POLICY Check indiscriminate deforestation Prevent overgrazing
Control shifting cultivation Carry out DEFORESTATION and REFORESTATION in quick succession Efficient utilization of forest products

46 Social Forestry Afforestation along fallow land degraded forest land
Railway line, roads , canal & river bank Panchayat land & common land

47 Sacred groves Traditional institution
Conservation of biodiversity & forest Worship of virgin forests Water storage facility Rich in medicinal plants

48 HISTORICAL EVENTS VAN MAHOTSAV CHIPKO MOVEMENT
Spreading public awareness Value of forests

49 CH 04 WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA

50 IMPORTANCE OF WATER Life line of living being
Essential for agriculture Industries Hydro electricity generation Means of navigation Sources of sports & recreation

51

52 Water Resources of India
Annual Precipitation Volume (Including snowfall) 4000 km3 Average Annual Potential flow in Rivers 1869 km3 Estimated Utilizable Water Resources 1122 km3 (i) Surface Water Resources 690 km3 (ii) Ground Water Resources 432 km3

53

54 WHAT IS THE NEED FOR IRRIGATION?
RAINFALL in India is seasonal, uncertain, uneven and sporadic. DIFFERENT CROPS have different water requirements. It is indispensable in SEMI ARID REGIONS of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan etc. It is necessary to extend the frontiers of cultivation in order to fulfill the food requirements of a GROWING POPULATION.

55 MODES OF IRRIGATION – WELL (PRIMITIVE)
COMMON IN NORTHERN PLAINS ADVANTAGES Cheapest source of irrigation. Can be dug at any convenient place. Independent source of irrigation. DISADVANTAGES Fail to provide water during the dry summer months Well can water only 1 to 2 hectares of land. Time consuming. In many parts it is brackish.

56 MODES OF IRRIGATION – TANK (PRIMITIVE)
COMMON IN DECCAN PLATEAU ADVANTAGES Simple, easy & cheap Stores rain water, prevents wastage Helps in raising the underground water level Also provide water for domestic purpose` DISADVANTAGES Occupies large area which otherwise could have been used for cultivation Many tanks dry up in the dry months Silting of tank is a problem Water is lost by evaporation

57 Reasons for the predominance of tank irrigation in the Deccan region
Underlying hard rocks does not allow percolation The undulating surface forms natural depression Construction of well is difficult in the peninsular region

58 MODES OF IRRIGATION – INUNDATION CANAL (PRIMITIVE)
ADVANTAGES Easily built Cheap Useful in controlling floods DISADVANTAGES Uncertainty of water supply Only low lands areas are irrigated Useful only during floods

59 MODES OF IRRIGATION – PERINNIAL CANAL (MODERN)
ADVANTAGES Perennial source of irrigation Water rich in sediments Although initial cost is high, it is quite cheap in the long run DISADVANTAGES Leads to the problem of water logging if canals are unlined Problem of soil Salinization or ‘reh’ Marshy areas near canal become breeding ground for mosquito resulting in Malaria.

60 Canal systems in North India
Ganga Canal (GANGA RIVER, UP AND BIHAR) Nangal Dam Canal (SUTLEJ RIVER, PUNJAB AND HARYANA) Indira Gandhi Canal (SUTLEJ RIVER, DRY PARTS OF RAJASTHAN) Chambal Project Canal (CHAMBAL RIVER, MP AND RAJASTHAN) Canal systems in South India Godavari Canal (GODAVARI RIVER, MAHARASHTRA AND AP) Tungabhadra Dam Canal (TUNGABHADRA RIVER, KARNATAKA AND AP) Hirakud Dam Canal (MAHANADI RIVER, ORISSA) Periyar Project Canal (PERIYAR RIVER, TAMILNADU) Mettur Project Canal (KAVERI RIVER, TAMILNADU)

61 ADVANTAGES OF MODERN METHODS OF IRRIGATION
More reliable. Provide irrigation whenever needed. Easy to operate. Irrigate a much larger area. Large amount of water can be pumped by electric or diesel driven motor.

62 Why is it so called? MULTIPURPOSE PROJECT Store water for irrigation
Generate electricity Control flood Provide afforestation in the catchment areas Soil conservation Provide drinking water Use canal for navigation Develop pisciculture Develop recreational centre

63 CONSERVATION OF WATER RESOURCES
Need RAINFALL IS IRREGULAR AND ERRATIC INCREASING DEMAND WITH INCREASING POPULATION PER CAPITA WATER IN INDIA IS VERY LOW AGRICULTURAL DEMAND WATER POLLUTION

64 How do we conserve water?

65 WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION - NO LOSS OF WATER THROUGH EVAPORATOIN OR SEEPAGE - EXPENSIVE DRIP IRRIGATION - Minimum loss of water due to seepage or evaporation - Greater yield - Reduces the chances of weeds WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT - Reducing surface run-off - Recharging groundwater - Irrigation RAIN WATER HARVESTING Stored for future use Used to recharge groundwater

66 CH 05 TRANSPORT IN INDIA

67 Roadways ADVANTAGES Can be used by a variety of vehicles
Single mode transportation from venue to destination Cheap and easy to build Ideal for short and medium distances Roadways DISADVANTAGES Not economical over long distances Not suited for transportation of bulk load Cause Pollution Prone to Traffic jams NHAI – NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY OF INDIA NHDP-NATINOAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROAGRAM

68 Roadways National Highways 4 lanes Connect important cities 67000 km
Built and maintained by NHAI Roadways

69 Expressways Six lanes Broad divider >120 kmph Toll roads Roadways

70 STATE HIGHWAY DISTRICT ROAD Roadways

71 Golden Quadrilateral

72 National Highways Development Project
NHAI started NHDP in 1998 Objective To set up km of world class highways NHDP to cost Rs. 2,25,000 crore NHDP to be implemented in 7 phases First phase is 6 or 8 laning of roads connecting 4 metros (Golden Quadrilateral) Roadways

73 Roadways Golden Quadrilateral NHAI started NHDP in 1998
To connect 4 metros Only National Highways covered Will pass through 13 states Will benefit 66 important cities Total cost Rs crore Roadways

74 Economic benefits of GQ
Better and faster transport between major cities and ports This results in benefit to Industry and trade Agriculture Employment Increase demand for labour, cement, steel and construction material Roadways

75 Railways ADVANTAGES Cheap mode of transport
Transportation of bulk goods over long distances Long and comfortable travel Can be used by many people at a time Railways DISADVANTAGES Cannot cater to hilly regions To be supported by roads High initial investment Maintenance NHAI – NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY OF INDIA NHDP-NATINOAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROAGRAM

76 Railways BROAD GAUGE: Distance between two rail is 1.67mts
Comprises of 70% of railways Installed to connect Major ports with the other cities Facilitate export of raw materials

77 Railways METRE GAUGE: Distance between the rail is 1mt
Comprises of 23% of railways Used in UP. Bihar, Assam, Gujarat, parts of western Rajasthan etc. Railways

78 Railways NARROW GAUGE: Distance between rail is 0.76 / 0.61mts
Restricted to hilly areas Toy train route between Siliguri – Darjeeling & Shimla – Kalka are worth mentioning Railways

79 Advancement in Railway Network since independence
All gauges converted to broad gauge Diesel engines replaced the steam engine Diesel locomotive works- Chittaranjan ( WB) & Varanasi ( UP) Electrification of all railway tracks undertaken Priority to high density sections To enable speed Volume of traffic Railways

80 Advancement in Railway Network since independence
Electrical engines run with greater speed and cause less pollution Computerization of ticketing Metro rail in Kolkata & Delhi Super Fast Trains Railways

81 Indian Railways – Current Problems
Tough competition with road transport Tremendous pressure of traffic Unsafe due to poor maintenance Inefficient image of railways Frequent changes in policies Delays in policy implementation Obsolete machinery, tracks and equipments Heavy consumption of electricity due to electrification Unskilled and untrained workforce Railways

82 Indian Railways – The Track ahead..
Agenda Status Electrification 20059 km Unigauge 51082 km Speed ‘Duronto’ trains in ‘Golden Corridor’ Comfort ‘Yuva’, ‘Matrubhumi’, ‘Izzat’ Booking E – ticketing Freight Dedicated Freight corridor New tracks km by 2020 Railways

83 WATERWAYS WATERWAYS

84 FACTORS AFFECTING WATER TRANSPORT
Regular flow of sufficient water Sufficient demand for water ways Depth of river bed should not be reduced by siltation Level of water not to decrease due to diversion canals WATERWAYS

85 WATERWAYS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Cheapest mode Fuel efficient
Suitable for carrying bulky commodities WATERWAYS DISADVANTAGES Can transport only along water routes To be supported by road or rail transport Inland waterways require good flowing water

86 TYPES Inland water transport(CWTC Central Water Transport Corporation) CWTC transport goods through: Ganga Brahmaputra Hugli Sunderban Region IWAI looks after development & regulation of inland waterways (IWAI Inland Water Authority of India) Coastal shipping WATERWAYS

87 WATERWAYS NATIONAL WATERWAYS NW RIVER STRETCH 1 Ganga
Allahabad – Haldia 2 Brahmaputra Sadia – Dhubri 3 West coast canal & Udyogmandal canal Kollam – Kottapuram WATERWAYS

88 FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DECLINE IN IMPORTANCE
Expansion of roads & railways Irrigation Deforestation resulting in siltation Seasonal rainfall Slow movement WATERWAYS

89 WATERWAYS COASTAL WATERWAYS Port : A place on the coast With docks
Unloading and distribution of cargo By land routes and vice- versa WATERWAYS

90 Advantages of Coastal Shipping
Environment friendly Fuel efficient Cheapest mode of transport for bulky goods Promotes coastal industries Provides employment Promotes tourism Less capital intensive WATERWAYS

91 Problems of Coastal shipping
Ports not well connected with hinterland Not well planned, therefore Lacks facilities Very congested Heavy pressure on cargo containers Aging coastal fleet Equal traffic not available to and fro Undue delays in handling cargo WATERWAYS

92 Tidal port located at the eastern end of Rann of Kutch
COAST PORTS FEATURES WEST MUMBAI Natural harbour; handles most of India’s foreign trade. Nava Sheva is the new port KANDLA Tidal port located at the eastern end of Rann of Kutch KOCHI Natural port located on a lagoon MARMAGAO Important port in Goa NEW MANGLORE A port in Karnataka, handles export of Iron ore

93 COAST PORTS FEATURES EAST
TUTICORIN New port in Tamil Nadu CHENNAI Oldest artificial harbour VISHAKHAPATNAM Deepest landlocked and protected port. Also a ship building centre PARADEEP A port in Orissa HALDIA New river port made to release the pressure of Kolkata port which suffers from the problem of silting

94 AIRWAYS AIRWAYS

95 Importance DGCA Directorate General of Civil Aviation- Regulatory Body Fastest mode of transport Indispensable for business class Indispensable for defence purposes Relatively free of physical barrier Possible to reach remote parts of the earth AIRWAYS

96 AIRWAYS Hindrances/ Problems Limited carrying capacity Expensive
Hampers the schedule during rough weather condition Competition from foreign airlines Efficient services Better facilities Frequent strikes- damages reputation AIRWAYS

97 Classification of Airports
International airports India’s international link is maintained by Air India 12 international airports at present Domestic Airports Indian Airlines- major air carrier Operates 5 to 7 domestic stations 17 international stations Private airlines are gaining importance Air Sahara, Jet Airways, Air Deccan etc. AIRWAYS

98 CH 06- MINERALS OF INDIA Types of Minerals A substance
Obtained from the earth’s crust Which is of Commercial, and Economic Value Types of Minerals Metallic Iron Ore, Manganese, Copper, Bauxite Non-Metallic Limestone, Gypsum, Granite, Marble Power Coal, Petroleum, Uranium

99 Importance of Minerals
Provide basis for INDUSTRIALISATION, thereby Raising National Income Providing Employment Opportunities Earning Foreign Exchange Improving Standard of Living

100 Conservation of Mineral Wealth
Importance to India Agriculture cannot support rising population People must take up other occupations Industrialization need of the hour Minerals basis for industrialization Conservation of Mineral Wealth Efficiency in mining technology Government’s control over mineral resources Re Use / Recycling of minerals

101 MINERAL DEPOSITS - ORISSA
PLACE REMARKS IRON ORE Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar Largest Producer MANGANESE Sundergadh, Kalahandi, Sambalpur COAL (GONDWANA) Talcher, Sonahat --

102 MINERAL DEPOSITS - JHARKHAND
PLACE REMARKS IRON ORE Singhbhum, Palamau Largest Reserves BAUXITE Ranchi & Palamau -- COAL (GONDWANA) Jharia, Bokaro Largest

103 MINERAL DEPOSITS - CHHATTISGARH
PLACE REMARKS IRON ORE Durg, Bastar --

104 MINERAL DEPOSITS - KARNATAKA
PLACE REMARKS IRON ORE Bellary, Shimoga -- MANGANESE Bellary, Shimoga, Tumkur district 2nd largest producer

105 MINERAL DEPOSITS – MADHYA PRADESH
PLACE REMARKS BAUXITE Amarkantak Plateau & Balaghat district -- MANGANESE Chindwara & Balaghat districts LIMESTONE Jabalpur & Satna

106 MINERAL DEPOSITS – GUJARAT
PLACE BAUXITE Jamnagar and Surat COAL (TERTIARY) Panandhro, Umarsar LIMESTONE Sikka & Porbandar PETROLEUM Cambay+Ankleshwar (18%) Mehsana (Newly discovered) REFINERIES IPCL Refinery, Koyali, Vaodara Reliance Refinery, Jamnagar

107 MINERAL DEPOSITS - OTHERS
STATE PLACE MINERAL TAMIL NADU Salem & Coimbatore BAUXITE Neyveli, Veeranam COAL (TERTIARY) RAJASTHAN Udaipur & Sawai Madhopur LIMESTONE Palna COAL (TERTIARY) Barmer PETROLEUM (RECENT DISCOVERY) UTTARANCHAL Dehradun and Pitthoragarh LIMESTONE WEST BENGAL Raniganj, Durgapur COAL (GONDWANA)

108 IMPORTANT POINTS Uses of MINERAL TYPES PROPERTIES (IF ANY) INDIA’S POSITION

109 Coal Formation – Ideal Conditions
Graben Sediment River Fault Dead Plants Coal

110 Carbonisation Stage Type of Coal Carbon content 1 Peat 50 – 60% 2
Lignite 60 – 70% 3 Bituminous 70 – 80% 4 Anthracite 80 – 90%

111 Tertiary Coal Gondwana Coal Formed in the Carboniferous Period
300 – 360 million years ago Laminated Bituminous Coal Uses Coke in Iron and Steel industry Steam Engines Gondwana Coal Formed in the Tertiary Period 50 – 60 million years ago Lignite Uses Thermal Electricity Steam Engines Tertiary Coal

112 Formation of petroleum
NON PERMEABLE ROCK (SHALE) NATURAL GAS PERMEABLE ROCK (SANDSTONE / LIMESTONE) PETROLEUM DEAD ORGANISMS NON PERMEABLE ROCK (SHALE)

113 CH 07- INDUSTRIES OF INDIA
Role of Industries Convert gifts of nature to finished goods Value addition Create wealth TO PEOPLE Employment opportunities Finished goods available Raises standard of living TO COUNTRY Earns foreign exchange Raises National Income Supports development of Infrastructure and Economy

114 Can be classified on the basis of
Raw material Function Nature of finished goods Extent of investment Location Ownership

115 FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
Geographical Factors Economic & Commercial Factors Availability of Raw Material Water Supply Power Supply Climate Availability of Labour Transport Government Policies Market Capital Banking Facilities

116 Producing Cotton Textiles
Ginning – separating cotton from seeds Cotton is spun into yarn Yarn woven into cloth Cloth made into garments

117 Mumbai Lancashire of India Raw material readily available
Humid climate Power readily available Well connected to rest of country Labour cheaply available Huge market for finished goods Port – import & export possible

118 Ahmedabad Manchester of India Raw material readily available
Humid climate Power readily available Well connected to rest of country Huge market for finished goods Connected to Kandla and Mumbai ports

119 Chennai Raw material readily available Humid climate
Power readily available Well connected to rest of country Huge market for finished goods Port – import & export possible Mills specialise in producing yarn

120 Kolkata Port – import & export possible Humid climate
Power readily available Well connected to rest of country Labour cheaply available Huge market for finished goods

121 COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY- IMPORTANCE
Provides clothes to consumers Provides employment Generates foreign exchange Supports other industries

122 COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY- PROBLEMS
Irregular supply of raw material Quality of raw material Competition from other countries Competition from other products Outdated machinery Sick mills

123

124 Second most important textile industry
Largest foreign exchange earner West Bengal is the most important producer

125 Started in 1855 near Kolkata
Was export oriented Industry suffered setback after independence 81% of jute growing area went to Bangladesh Acute shortage of raw material in India Inefficient mills closed down 73 operating mills at present

126

127 Ganga – Brahmaputra delta; the major jute growing area
Coal from DVC & Raniganj Cheap water transport Dense network of road & railways Humid climate favours spinning Fresh water for retting, washing& dying

128 Easy availability of capital Advantage of early start
Kolkata port helps: Import of machinery Export of finished products Easy availability of capital Advantage of early start Cheap labour from WB & Bihar

129 Shortage of raw material Obsolete machinery High price Competition
Foreign countries Synthetic packing material Less demand

130 Increase jute production
Replace old machinery Diversifying the product range Research institutes for development

131 SILK INDUSTRY

132 TYPES Silk worms feed on mulberry leaves 90% of total silk output
MULBERRY SILK Silk worms feed on mulberry leaves 90% of total silk output Produced mainly in Karnataka, WB, J&K, HP NON MULBERRY SILK Eri, Muga, & Tussar are non mulberry silk Produced in Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand & Meghalaya, MP, Orissa,

133 BANGALORE – MYSORE REGION
Favorable climate for plantation of Bombyx mori Fresh water free from alkaline salt New scientific technology Inherited skill

134 SUGAR INDUSTRY

135 BY PRODUCTS Bagasse Rejected cane Earlier used as fuel
Used for manufacturing paper, cardboard & insulation board Molasses Dark brown syrup drained during process of sugar making Used for manufacturing Industrial alcohol, fertilizer, rum &yeast Press mud Used for making shoe polish, carbon paper, & extraction of wax

136 BIHAR & UP- LOCATIONAL FACTOR
Largest sugar producing belt Coal obtained from Jharkhand Dense network of railways Skilled labour Kanpur is the chief distributing &marketing centre

137 PROBLEMS Subtropical climate Short crushing season Factories are not within the proximity of the field Outmoded machinery Price of sugarcane fixed by government Low yield, shortage of raw material

138 SOUTHWARD MIGRATION Suitable geographic condition Longer crushing season Large landholdings Fertilizer, more commonly used Factories closer to the fields Co operative management Sugar Lobby

139

140 Earlier, important as cottage industry
Modern industry set up at Kanpur Tropical country; market is seasonal Product is of inferior quality Kashmir famous for carpet making

141 Availability of raw material
Demand – cold winters HEP from Bhakra Nangal Cheap labour

142 Shortage of raw material
Lack of market Lack of modern equipment Low quality of products

143 Carpets Sweaters Jerseys Socks Gloves Shawl Pullovers

144


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