 1.5 Elementary Matrices and

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1.5 Elementary Matrices and
-1 a Method for Finding A

Definition An n×n matrix is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the n×n identity matrix by performing a single elementary row operation.

Example1 Elementary Matrices and Row Operations

Theorem 1.5.1 Row Operations by Matrix Multiplication
If the elementary matrix E results from performing a certain row operation on and if A is an m×n matrix ,then the product EA is the matrix that results when this same row operation is performed on A . When a matrix A is multiplied on the left by an elementary matrix E ,the effect is to performan elementary row operation on A .

Example2 Using Elementary Matrices

Inverse Operations If an elementary row operation is applied to an identity matrix I to produce an elementary matrix E ,then there is a second row operation that, when applied to E, produces I back again. Table 1.The operations on the right side of this table are called the inverse operations of the corresponding operations on the left.

Example3 Row Operations and Inverse Row Operation
The 2 ×2 identity matrix to obtain an elementary matrix E ,then E is restored to the identity matrix by applying the inverse row operation.

Theorem 1.5.2 Every elementary matrix is invertible ,and the inverse is also an elementary matrix.

Theorem 1.5.3 Equivalent Statements
If A is an n×n matrix ,then the following statements are equivalent ,that is ,all true or all false.

Row Equivalence Matrices that can be obtained from one another by a finite sequence of elementary row operations are said to be row equivalent . With this terminology it follows from parts (a )and (c ) of Theorem that an n×n matrix A is invertible if and only if it is row equivalent to the n×n identity matrix.

A method for Inverting Matrices

Example4 Using Row Operations to Find (1/3)
Find the inverse of Solution: To accomplish this we shall adjoin the identity matrix to the right side of A ,thereby producing a matrix of the form we shall apply row operations to this matrix until the left side is reduced to I ;these operations will convert the right side to ,so that the final matrix will have the form

Example4 Using Row Operations to Find (2/3)

Example5 Showing That a Matrix Is Not Invertible

Example4 Using Row Operations to Find (3/3)

Example6 A Consequence of Invertibility

Exercise Set 1.5 Question 3

Exercise Set 1.5 Question 10

Exercise Set 1.5 Question 17

Exercise Set 1.5 Question 22