4 MatricesA rectangular array of numbers is called a matrix (plural, matrices).The rows of a matrix are horizontal.The columns of a matrix are vertical.The matrix shown has 2 rows and 3 columns.A matrix with m rows and n columns is said to be of order m n.When m = n the matrix is said to be square.See Example 1, page 783.
5 Matrices Consider the system: 4x + 2y = -3 x + 5y = -4 Example:The matrix shown above is an augmented matrix because it contains not only the coefficients but also the constant terms.The matrix is called the coefficient matrix.
6 Row-Equivalent Operations, pg. 784 1) Interchange any two rows. (Ri Rj)2) Multiply each entry in a row by the same nonzero constant. (kRi)3) Add a nonzero multiple of one row to another row. (kRi + Rj)
7 See Example 2.Check Point 2, page 785: Perform each indicated row operation on(R1 R2)¼R13R2 + R3 = new R3
8 Solving Systems using Gaussian Elimination with Matrices Write the augmented matrix.Use row operations to get the matrix in “row echelon” form:Write the system of equations corresponding to the resulting matrix.Use back-substitution to find the system’s solution.
9 Example – Watch and listen. Solve the following system:
10 First, we write the augmented matrix, writing 0 for the missing y-term in the last equation. Our goal is to find a row-equivalent matrix of the form
11 Example continuedR R2We multiply the first row by 2 and add it to the second row.We also multiply the first row by 4 and add it to the third row.
12 We multiply the second row by 1/5 to get a 1 in the second row, second column.
13 We multiply the second row by 12 and add it to the third row. R3 = -12R2 + R3
14 Example continuedNow, we can write the system of equations that corresponds to the last matrix :
15 Example continuedWe back-substitute 3 for z in equation (2) and solve for y.
16 Example continuedNext, we back-substitute 1 for y and 3 for z in equation (1) and solve for x.The triple (2, 1, 3) checks in the original system of equations, so it is the solution.
17 See Example 3.Check Point 3: Use matrices to solve the system 2x + y + 2z = 18x – y + 2z = 9x + 2y – z = 6.Write the augmented matrix for the system.Solve using Gauss Elimination or your calculator.Check/verify your solution.
18 See Example 3.2x + y + 2z = 18x – y + 2z = 9x + 2y – z = 6.
19 Row-Echelon Form, page 7901. If a row does not consist entirely of 0’s, then the first nonzero element in the row is a 1 (called a leading 1).2. For any two successive nonzero rows, the leading 1 in the lower row is farther to the right than the leading 1 in the higher row.3. All the rows consisting entirely of 0’s are at the bottom of the matrix.If a fourth property is also satisfied, a matrix is said to be in reduced row-echelon form:4. Each column that contains a leading 1 has 0’s everywhere else.
20 Example -- Which of the following matrices are in row-echelon form? a) b)c) d)Matrices (a) and (d) satisfy the row-echelon criteria. In (b) the first nonzero element is not 1. In (c), the row consisting entirely of 0’s is not at the bottom of the matrix.
21 Gauss-Jordan Elimination We perform row-equivalent operations on a matrix to obtain a row-equivalent matrix in row-echelon form. We continue to apply these operations until we have a matrix in reduced row-echelon form.
22 Gauss-Jordan Elimination Example Example: Use Gauss-Jordan elimination to solve the system of equations from the previous example; we had obtained the matrix
23 Next, we multiply the second row by 3 and add it to the first row. Gauss-Jordan Elimination continued -- We continue to perform row-equivalent operations until we have a matrix in reduced row-echelon form.Next, we multiply the second row by 3 and add it to the first row.
24 Gauss-Jordan Elimination continued Writing the system of equations that corresponds to this matrix, we haveWe can actually read the solution, (2, 1, 3), directly from the last column of the reduced row-echelon matrix.
25 Lesson 8.2 Special Systems When a row consists entirely of 0’s, the equations are dependent and the system is equivalent, meaning you have a system that is colinear.Answer: INFINITELY MANY SOLUTIONS
26 Lesson 8.2 Special Systems When we obtain a row whose only nonzero entry occurs in the last column, we have an inconsistent system of equations. For example, in the matrixthe last row corresponds to the false equation0 = 9, so we know the original system has no solution.
27 Check Point 2, page 797 Solve the system: x – 2y – z = 5