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# Navigational Aids Know the theory and operation of modern air navigational aids.

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Navigational Aids Know the theory and operation of modern air navigational aids

Navigational Aids Describe the theory and use of a Doppler System
Describe the theory and use of a Navigational Radar System Describe the theory and use of a Inertial Navigation System (INS) Describe the theory and use of Global Positioning System (GPS) Lesson Objective: Know how to use dead reckoning techniques. Samples of Behavior/Main Points 1. List basic facts and general principle of dead reckoning. 2. Describe the wind triangle and its applications.

The Doppler Effect Named after Christian Johan Doppler, a German mathematician who discovered the principle of Doppler effect. Doppler effect can be observed by listening to a passing racecar.

Radar Radar Uses Land Navigation Landing Aid
The term radar stands for Radio Detection and Ranging. Echo principle. The radar antenna relays the signal to an onboard computer where it is displayed on a radarscope. Radar Uses Land Navigation Landing Aid Detection and Surveillance Imagery Radar The term radar stands for radio detection and ranging. Radar works on an echo principle. A high-energy radio signal is transmitted. The signal travels until it contacts an object, and then it is reflected back to the radar antenna The radar antenna relays the signal to a cathode-ray tube (CRT) or radarscope where it is displayed. The distance to the target is determined by measuring the time required for the signal to reach the target and return to the antenna. The radar signal travels at the speed of light and makes the round trip in microseconds.

Radar

Doppler

Doppler Radar By using the principle of frequency shift and a computer, you can measure the movement of an aircraft over the ground. The Doppler system constantly adjusts to changes in wind direction, aircraft altitude, engine power, and it gives instantaneous indications of each. By using the principle of frequency shift and a computer, you can measure the movement of an aircraft over the ground. The Doppler set transmits four radar beams downward at such angles that they outline the corners of a large rectangle beneath the aircraft. The Doppler effects shifts the frequency of the radar signals reflected back to the aircraft in proportion to the movement of the airplane. The frequencies of the reflected signals are compared with the frequency of original signals, and the difference is measured by the Doppler set. The data that is obtained from each of the four beams is then fed into a computer, and the computer calculates the drift of the aircraft and its exact groundspeed. The Doppler system constantly adjusts to changes in wind direction, aircraft altitude, engine power, and it gives instantaneous indications of each. The information provided to the pilot/navigator is present position, miles-to-go to destination, and the extent to which the aircraft is off course. The computer may be connected to the automatic pilot in many aircraft to keep the aircraft on course automatically.

Doppler If you can tell movement in the V1-V4 axis, when compared to aircraft True Heading and True Airspeed, go you not tell Track and Groundspeed? And therefore Wind Direction and Velocity?

Inertial Navigation System (INS)
The speed of modern aircraft requires more sophisticated navigational systems than those of the past. To use the inertial navigation system, an accurate fix inserted as a starting point Accelerometer senses change in direction or speed – based on these changes the INS calculates navigational information: course, speed, distance to go, etc.

GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact location..

GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact location..

Navigational Aids Know the theory and operation of modern air navigational aids

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