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Presentation on theme: "Leasing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leasing

2 Learning Objectives The basic characteristics of leases and how to differentiate between operating and financial (or capital) leases The benefits and disadvantages of leases How the lease decision can be evaluated using the discounted cash flow valuation methods

3 Important Chapter Terms
Asset-based lending Financial lease Lessee Lessor Leveraged lease Off-balance-sheet financing Operating lease Sale and leaseback (SLB) agreement Secured financing Small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs)

4 Leasing Arrangements - Introduction
The decision to invest in an asset that has a long life is a capital budgeting decision. The decision to acquire is a separate decision from the decision on the method of financing the acquisition When these two decisions are combined, this is called asset-based lending because the financing is tied directly to a particular asset. Examples of asset-based lending include: Secured loans Leases

5 Lease Defined Lease is a contract under which a lessor, the owner of the assets, gives right to use the asset to a lessee, the user of the assets, for an agreed period of time for a consideration called the lease rentals. Hence A lease contract is an agreement where the owner conveys to the user the right to use an asset in return for a number of specified payments over an agreed period of time Lessor is the owner of the asset Lessee is the user of the asset

6 Leasing: Types of Leases
Operating Lease A lease where some of the benefits of ownership do not transfer to the lessee and remain with the lessor. Financial (Capital) Lease A lease where essentially all the benefits of ownership transfer to the lessee; also known as a capital or full payout lease.

7 Operating Lease Shot-term, cancelable lease agreements are called operating lease. Tourist renting a car, lease contracts for computers, office equipments and hotel rooms. The Lessor is generally responsible for maintenance and insurance. Risk of obsolescence remains with the lessor.

8 Financial Lease Long-term, non-cancelable lease contracts are known as financial lease. Examples are plant, machinery, land, building, ships and aircrafts. Amortize the cost of the asset over the terms of the lease–Capital or Full pay-out leases.

9 Operating versus Financial Leases

10 Sale and Lease Back Sometimes, a user may sell an (existing) asset owned by him to the lessor (leasing company) and lease it back from him. Such sale and lease back arrangements may provide substantial tax benefits. In April 1989, Shipping Credit and Investment Corporation of India purchased Great Eastern Shipping Company bulk carrier, Jag Lata, for Rs Cr and then leased it back to GESC on a 5 years lease, the rentals being Rs Lakh per month. The ships WDV was Rs 2.5 Cr.

11 Financial/Capital/Full Payout Lease What is it? Accounting Perspective
The lessee is deemed to own the asset and will claim depreciation on the firm’s income statement and record the value as an asset and liability on the balance sheet. Such leases usually: Require the lessee to carry out maintenance and insure the asset Provides the lessee with a fixed purchase option The lease agreement covers 75% of the economic life of the asset Is structured so that the present value of lease payments exceeds 90 % of the cost Involves fixed rental payments.

12 Operating Lease What is it? Accounting Perspective
If a lease is NOT a capital lease, then it is an operating lease Operating leases do not transfer to the lessee the benefits of ownership

13 Leveraged Lease : What is it?
A three-way agreement among the lessee, the lessor, and a third party lender in which the lessor buys the asset with only a small down payment and the lender supplies the financing

14 Accounting for Leases Accounting for Leases
Financial leases are included on the balance sheet of the lessee Operating leases are off-balance-sheet financing for the lessee (included only in the notes to the financial statements)

15 Evaluating the Lease Decision: Lease Versus Buy
Leasing is an alternative means of obtaining the use of an asset. There are four main differences in the cash flows for a company that leases an asset instead of buying it: It does not have to pay for the asset up front It does not get to sell the asset when it is finished with it, if it is an operating lease, or if title is not transferred through a financial lease It makes regular lease payments. If the lease is an operating lease, then the full amount of the lease payments is tax deductible; only the interest portion is deductible for capital leases Operating leases are not depreciated.

16 Evaluating the Lease Decision Lease Versus Buy Evaluative Frameworks
IRR of Leasing Analysis Estimate incremental cash flows that result from leasing Solve for the discount rate (IRR) that equates the incremental cash flows with the initial value of the asset. (This is the after-tax IRR or cost of leasing) If IRR of leasing > after-tax cost of borrowing (borrow and buy the asset) If IRR of leasing < after-tax cost of borrowing (lease the asset)

17 Lease Versus Buy Evaluative
NPV of Leasing Analysis Estimate incremental cash flows that result from leasing Calculate NPV using after-tax cost of borrowing as the discount rate. If NPV of leasing is – (borrow and buy the asset) If NPV of leasing + after-tax cost of borrowing (lease the asset)

18 Net Advantage of a Lease Method
The direct cash flow consequences are: The purchase price of the asset is avoided. The depreciation tax shield Is lost. The after tax lease rentals are paid. The net present value of these cash flows at after tax cost of debt should be calculated. If it is positive lease is beneficial.

19 Motivation for Leasing
Cheaper financing Reduce the risks of asset ownership Implicit interest rates Maintenance Convenience Flexibility Capital budgeting restrictions Financial statement effects

20 Summary and Conclusions
In this chapter you have learned: That firms can gain the use of assets through leasing rather than outright ownership The general differences between operating and financial leases How to evaluate a potential lease decision using discounted cash flow analysis The various reasons firms might have for entering into lease arrangements

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