2 Learning ObjectivesThe basic characteristics of leases and how to differentiate between operating and financial (or capital) leasesThe benefits and disadvantages of leasesHow the lease decision can be evaluated using the discounted cash flow valuation methods
3 Important Chapter Terms Asset-based lendingFinancial leaseLesseeLessorLeveraged leaseOff-balance-sheet financingOperating leaseSale and leaseback (SLB) agreementSecured financingSmall and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs)
4 Leasing Arrangements - Introduction The decision to invest in an asset that has a long life is a capital budgeting decision.The decision to acquire is a separate decision from the decision on the method of financing the acquisitionWhen these two decisions are combined, this is called asset-based lending because the financing is tied directly to a particular asset.Examples of asset-based lending include:Secured loansLeases
5 Lease DefinedLease is a contract under which a lessor, the owner of the assets, gives right to use the asset to a lessee, the user of the assets, for an agreed period of time for a consideration called the lease rentals.Hence A lease contract is an agreement where the owner conveys to the user the right to use an asset in return for a number of specified payments over an agreed period of timeLessor is the owner of the assetLessee is the user of the asset
6 Leasing: Types of Leases Operating LeaseA lease where some of the benefits of ownership do not transfer to the lessee and remain with the lessor.Financial (Capital) LeaseA lease where essentially all the benefits of ownership transfer to the lessee; also known as a capital or full payout lease.
7 Operating LeaseShot-term, cancelable lease agreements are called operating lease.Tourist renting a car, lease contracts for computers, office equipments and hotel rooms.The Lessor is generally responsible for maintenance and insurance.Risk of obsolescence remains with the lessor.
8 Financial LeaseLong-term, non-cancelable lease contracts are known as financial lease.Examples are plant, machinery, land, building, ships and aircrafts.Amortize the cost of the asset over the terms of the lease–Capital or Full pay-out leases.
10 Sale and Lease BackSometimes, a user may sell an (existing) asset owned by him to the lessor (leasing company) and lease it back from him. Such sale and lease back arrangements may provide substantial tax benefits.In April 1989, Shipping Credit and Investment Corporation of India purchased Great Eastern Shipping Company bulk carrier, Jag Lata, for Rs Cr and then leased it back to GESC on a 5 years lease, the rentals being Rs Lakh per month. The ships WDV was Rs 2.5 Cr.
11 Financial/Capital/Full Payout Lease What is it? Accounting Perspective The lessee is deemed to own the asset and will claim depreciation on the firm’s income statement and record the value as an asset and liability on the balance sheet.Such leases usually:Require the lessee to carry out maintenance and insure the assetProvides the lessee with a fixed purchase optionThe lease agreement covers 75% of the economic life of the assetIs structured so that the present value of lease payments exceeds 90 % of the costInvolves fixed rental payments.
12 Operating Lease What is it? Accounting Perspective If a lease is NOT a capital lease, then it is an operating leaseOperating leases do not transfer to the lessee the benefits of ownership
13 Leveraged Lease : What is it? A three-way agreement among the lessee, the lessor, and a third party lender in which the lessor buys the asset with only a small down payment and the lender supplies the financing
14 Accounting for Leases Accounting for Leases Financial leases are included on the balance sheet of the lesseeOperating leases are off-balance-sheet financing for the lessee (included only in the notes to the financial statements)
15 Evaluating the Lease Decision: Lease Versus Buy Leasing is an alternative means of obtaining the use of an asset. There are four main differences in the cash flows for a company that leases an asset instead of buying it:It does not have to pay for the asset up frontIt does not get to sell the asset when it is finished with it, if it is an operating lease, or if title is not transferred through a financial leaseIt makes regular lease payments. If the lease is an operating lease, then the full amount of the lease payments is tax deductible; only the interest portion is deductible for capital leasesOperating leases are not depreciated.
16 Evaluating the Lease Decision Lease Versus Buy Evaluative Frameworks IRR of Leasing AnalysisEstimate incremental cash flows that result from leasingSolve for the discount rate (IRR) that equates the incremental cash flows with the initial value of the asset. (This is the after-tax IRR or cost of leasing)If IRR of leasing > after-tax cost of borrowing (borrow and buy the asset)If IRR of leasing < after-tax cost of borrowing (lease the asset)
17 Lease Versus Buy Evaluative NPV of Leasing AnalysisEstimate incremental cash flows that result from leasingCalculate NPV using after-tax cost of borrowing as the discount rate.If NPV of leasing is – (borrow and buy the asset)If NPV of leasing + after-tax cost of borrowing (lease the asset)
18 Net Advantage of a Lease Method The direct cash flow consequences are:The purchase price of the asset is avoided.The depreciation tax shield Is lost.The after tax lease rentals are paid.The net present value of these cash flows at after tax cost of debt should be calculated. If it is positive lease is beneficial.
19 Motivation for Leasing Cheaper financingReduce the risks of asset ownershipImplicit interest ratesMaintenanceConvenienceFlexibilityCapital budgeting restrictionsFinancial statement effects
20 Summary and Conclusions In this chapter you have learned:That firms can gain the use of assets through leasing rather than outright ownershipThe general differences between operating and financial leasesHow to evaluate a potential lease decision using discounted cash flow analysisThe various reasons firms might have for entering into lease arrangements