Presentation on theme: "Economy - more capitalist, market-oriented - main problems with rural development - agriculture - peasants - rural communities - hukou system - the second."— Presentation transcript:
Economy - more capitalist, market-oriented - main problems with rural development - agriculture - peasants - rural communities - hukou system - the second largest economy in the world
Gender - 70% of women serving as the agricultural labor in 2006 - women have limited access to female extension agents Languages/Ethnicities - mandarin - problems with dialects
Regulatory policies and institutions - 5-year plans - since 2001, rural informatization was included ICT highlights of 5-year plans
Other policies and programs - Key Technologies Research and Development Program - 973 Program - 863 Program - State Informatization Development Strategy General ICT Notes
In the last 5 years an additional 3.5 million rural households were electrified. All households in the eastern half of the country have electricity. Households access agriculture through a variety of electrified and non electronic media outlets.
74% of villages have radio. There are questions about radio as an effective information transfer tool. There are over 3,000 TV stations. 98% of households have a TV and 81% of rural users said that they got agricultural information from TV. There is a national agricultural channel, but also each province has its own provincial agricultural channel..
1.1 billion mobile phone subscriptions in 2012. Purchased phones do not reflect user needs in rural areas. Smart phones are inexpensive with a breadth of uses Agricultural hotlines exist and the service is often combined with other types of hotlines. Mobile phone usage has spurred internet usage. 44% of the population accesses the internet, with 78.5% of them accessing from their phones. Only 28% of internet users are rural, but this is the fastest growing user group. 80% of administrative villages have broadband.
Centers provide training on using websites, call centers and SMS services as well as information on: internet, agricultural sciences and technology, markets, education, medical care, and culture. Program was started by UNDP with funding and energy, but it was up to the provinces to sustain them. Currently infrastructure is inconsistent and successful examples are rare.
ICTs are made with urban users in mind and do not target the rural population as stakeholders in development. Given the growing connectivity of these groups there is a need to work with farmers to learn more about the types of services they need and how they would like to access them.
China’s uniqueness Strong governmental influence Growing non-profit sector Fraught in-country NGO issues and the bad reputation
Development-based projects Initiated by the central government Implemented by a branch of the government Detailed expectations set at a national level Townships and villages excluded from the decision making process Little apparent coordination by organization mandate Duplicated efforts and inefficient use of resources
Development-based projects See pp. 18-21 of the report.
Lack of tech-literacy to use ICTs to their max potential Unawareness of the information ICTs can provide and the benefits they may produce Lack of detailed and up-to-date online outreach content Lack of online content tailored for farmers needs and level of knowledge Lack of free or affordable agricultural extension materials
Training through village information center can help increase farmers’ comfort and familiarity with their devices and the benefits. Quality, user-friendly online materials can become a valuable source that farmers access agricultural technology from. Free and up-to-date information needs to be valued by material developers. Information on farmers’ interactions with websites and ICTs can help material developers to produce better, user-friendly materials. Similar advice for materials to be sent via cellphones.
China: Rapidly developing economy Farmers’ income lagging behind their urban counterparts Various economic status and accessibility to ICTs Young farmer better adapted to new technology ICT infrastructure ready to use Need for farmer-friendly content