2 RecallWe discussed What Makes Us and what influences human behaviour over the past few daysToday, we will examine how Culture perpetuates itself from generation to generationAnthropologists often regard culture as an Agent of Socialization, and Kinship Systems as the main transmitter
3 Socialization & it’s Agents Socialization is a continuous process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity & learns the norms, values, behaviour, and social skills appropriate to their social positionSocialization takes place through interactions w/ others (sometimes referred to as social contact)Interactions can be intentional or unintentionalAnthropologists (as well as sociologists & social psychologists) believe there are a number of ways or methods in which PPL become socializedThese methods of socialization are called agents of socialization
4 Socialization Terminology Norms: rules that indicate what ppl should do or how they should actValues: standards of what is considered right & wrongStatus: the position a person has w/in a social institutionPrimary Agents of SocializationAre the most important agents of socialization /c they shape the life/behaviour of individual’s when they are childrenIncludes - Family & FriendsSecondary Agents of SocializationAre typically institutions (places) that help an individual find their place in societyIncludes - school, work, religion
5 Kinship SystemsAnthropologists believe kinship systems (family) is the most important agent of socializationWhy Kinship?Kinship determinesWhom we are related tooWhom we must show respect tooWho owes respect to youFamily relationships define who we are as individuals & how we see others in their society
7 Types of Kinship Systems & Key Terms Matrilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through their mothersPatrilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through their fathersBilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through both parentsLineage: male relatives capable of tracing their ancestry back to one direct personClan: group of several lineages in which ppl are related but cannot always trace exact ancestral relationships
8 Stop & Reflect What kinship system does your family follow? How does your kinship system determine yours sense of self?How would immigration and/or emigration affect kinship systems?
9 Marriage: Perpetuator of Socialization Marriage is a cultural institution in MOST culturesVaries in appearance & practice b/w culturesAnthropologists agree that marriage defines social relationships to provide for the survival & socialization of childrenIt defines rights & obligations of 2 PPL in terms of sex, reproduction, work and social rolesCreates new relationships b/w families & kin groups
10 Marriage in Canada: Do You Know it’s History? As a class let’s discuss the following questionsWhat would marriage look like in prior to 1960?(i.e. ethnically, religiously, social class, etc)What happened to children born out of wedlock?What type of marriage became popular after 1960?How have marriages changed since the 1990s?What important marriage function, is NOT being fulfilled by many couples today?
11 Arranged Marriage, the Most Common? Arranged marriages are set-up by someone other than the people getting marriedInteresting fact: 5-7% of arranged marriages fail, 50% of nonarranged marriages failWhy?Shaped by beliefs that child-rearing, economic relationships, & uniting kin groups are more important than love
12 Types of MarriageMonogamy: relationship where an individual has 1 partnerPolygamy: marriage that involves multiple partnersPolygyny: marriage b/w 1 husband & multiple wives (permitted in 80% of world cultures)Polyandry: marriage b/w 1 wife & multiple husbands (practiced in less than 1% of all world cultures)What types of marriage are legal in Canada?Why is this form of marriage strange considering the N. American divorce rate?
13 Family Roles & Cultures W/ marriage comes familiesFamily members have specific rolesFather, mother, son, daughter, etc…Roles differ depending on culture hwr,ALL members have obligations to familyObligations may be to nuclear members or extended members (aunts, uncles, etc)These roles also shape how we act & view the worldThink about the following roles & who performs them in your house; repairs, cleaning, income, meal prep, organizing activities, etc…What roles do you play?What obligations do you have w/in each role?
14 Family Roles & Self-Concept How do families influence our self-concept?Studies on Western & Eastern societies show similarities & differencesSimilaritiesDifferencesPPL perceive self positivelyPPL feel that they are good or valuableSelf-enhancementWesterners see themselves more positively than they really areBlame for a bad mark is typically placed elsewhereMistake, bad luck, teacher’s faultAsian culture motivated by shameMotivates to avoid bad marksTo be “good” you avoid humiliation (better study!)
15 Kinship & MarriageUsing your knowledge of kinship systems & marriage to answer the following questionsHow does kinship & marriage influence or shape an individual’s identity?Explain how an individual growing up in a matrilineal-polyandry culture may view the world differently than someone from a bilineal- monogamous culture?According to anthropologists, how are social norms, values, and behaviours transferred from one generation to the next?