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Socialization: The Producer of Culture

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1 Socialization: The Producer of Culture

2 Recall We discussed What Makes Us and what influences human behaviour over the past few days Today, we will examine how Culture perpetuates itself from generation to generation Anthropologists often regard culture as an Agent of Socialization, and Kinship Systems as the main transmitter

3 Socialization & it’s Agents
Socialization is a continuous process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity & learns the norms, values, behaviour, and social skills appropriate to their social position Socialization takes place through interactions w/ others (sometimes referred to as social contact) Interactions can be intentional or unintentional Anthropologists (as well as sociologists & social psychologists) believe there are a number of ways or methods in which PPL become socialized These methods of socialization are called agents of socialization

4 Socialization Terminology
Norms: rules that indicate what ppl should do or how they should act Values: standards of what is considered right & wrong Status: the position a person has w/in a social institution Primary Agents of Socialization Are the most important agents of socialization /c they shape the life/behaviour of individual’s when they are children Includes - Family & Friends Secondary Agents of Socialization Are typically institutions (places) that help an individual find their place in society Includes - school, work, religion

5 Kinship Systems Anthropologists believe kinship systems (family) is the most important agent of socialization Why Kinship? Kinship determines Whom we are related too Whom we must show respect too Who owes respect to you Family relationships define who we are as individuals & how we see others in their society

6 What Kinship Looks Like

7 Types of Kinship Systems & Key Terms
Matrilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through their mothers Patrilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through their fathers Bilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through both parents Lineage: male relatives capable of tracing their ancestry back to one direct person Clan: group of several lineages in which ppl are related but cannot always trace exact ancestral relationships

8 Stop & Reflect What kinship system does your family follow?
How does your kinship system determine yours sense of self? How would immigration and/or emigration affect kinship systems?

9 Marriage: Perpetuator of Socialization
Marriage is a cultural institution in MOST cultures Varies in appearance & practice b/w cultures Anthropologists agree that marriage defines social relationships to provide for the survival & socialization of children It defines rights & obligations of 2 PPL in terms of sex, reproduction, work and social roles Creates new relationships b/w families & kin groups

10 Marriage in Canada: Do You Know it’s History?
As a class let’s discuss the following questions What would marriage look like in prior to 1960? (i.e. ethnically, religiously, social class, etc) What happened to children born out of wedlock? What type of marriage became popular after 1960? How have marriages changed since the 1990s? What important marriage function, is NOT being fulfilled by many couples today?

11 Arranged Marriage, the Most Common?
Arranged marriages are set-up by someone other than the people getting married Interesting fact: 5-7% of arranged marriages fail, 50% of nonarranged marriages fail Why? Shaped by beliefs that child-rearing, economic relationships, & uniting kin groups are more important than love

12 Types of Marriage Monogamy: relationship where an individual has 1 partner Polygamy: marriage that involves multiple partners Polygyny: marriage b/w 1 husband & multiple wives (permitted in 80% of world cultures) Polyandry: marriage b/w 1 wife & multiple husbands (practiced in less than 1% of all world cultures) What types of marriage are legal in Canada? Why is this form of marriage strange considering the N. American divorce rate?

13 Family Roles & Cultures
W/ marriage comes families Family members have specific roles Father, mother, son, daughter, etc… Roles differ depending on culture hwr, ALL members have obligations to family Obligations may be to nuclear members or extended members (aunts, uncles, etc) These roles also shape how we act & view the world Think about the following roles & who performs them in your house; repairs, cleaning, income, meal prep, organizing activities, etc… What roles do you play? What obligations do you have w/in each role?

14 Family Roles & Self-Concept
How do families influence our self-concept? Studies on Western & Eastern societies show similarities & differences Similarities Differences PPL perceive self positively PPL feel that they are good or valuable Self-enhancement Westerners see themselves more positively than they really are Blame for a bad mark is typically placed elsewhere Mistake, bad luck, teacher’s fault Asian culture motivated by shame Motivates to avoid bad marks To be “good” you avoid humiliation (better study!)

15 Kinship & Marriage Using your knowledge of kinship systems & marriage to answer the following questions How does kinship & marriage influence or shape an individual’s identity? Explain how an individual growing up in a matrilineal-polyandry culture may view the world differently than someone from a bilineal- monogamous culture? According to anthropologists, how are social norms, values, and behaviours transferred from one generation to the next?

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