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Presentation on theme: "CRUDE DRUGS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 They may be obtained from vegetable, animal and mineral sources.
Sources of crude drugs They may be obtained from vegetable, animal and mineral sources. They form the subject matter of Pharmacognosy.

3 Pharmacognosy is concerned mainly with naturally occurring substances of medicinal importance.
It is, however, not entirely limited to such substances.

4 Others may include substances such as;
Surgical dressings prepared from natural fibres Flavouring and suspending agents Disintegrants

5 The term crude drug refers generally to products of plant and animal origin found usually in their raw state/form The term may also apply to pharmaceutical products obtained from the mineral kingdom.

6 Definition of crude drug
Crude drugs may be defined as any natural product that has not been advanced in value or improved in condition by any process or treatment beyond that which is essential for its proper packing and prevention from deterioration.

7 Sources of crude drugs The most important natural sources of drugs are; Higher plants Microbes Animals Marine organisms

8 Types of crude drugs 2 types exist depending on this type of classification; Organized drugs Unorganized drugs

9 Organized drugs These are drugs obtained from the direct parts of the plants and containing cellular tissues E.g. Rhizomes, barks, leaves, fruits, entire plants, hairs and fibres

10 Examples of organized drugs
Leaves– Digitalis, Eucalyptus, Mint, Senna, Spearmint, Squill, Tulsi, Vasaka, Coca, Buchu, Hyoscyamus, Belladonna, Tea. Barks–Cascara, Cassia, Cinchona, Cinnamon, Quillia. Flowering parts– Clove, Pyrethrum, Chamomile.

11 Fruits– Anise, Bitter Orange peel, Capsicum, Caraway, Cardamom, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Lemon peel, Star anise. Seeds– Bitter almond, Black Mustard, Cardamom, Colchicum, Ispaghula,, Linseed, Nutmeg, Nux vomica. Roots and Rhizomes– Colchicum corm, Dioscorea, Garlic, Ginger, Ginseng, Glycyrrhiza.

12 Unorganized drugs These are drugs which are prepared from plants by some intermediate physical process such as incision, drying or extraction and not containing any cellular plant tissue E.g. Aloe, honey, beeswax, essential oil

13 Differences between organized and unorganized drugs
These may be of plant or animal origin. These may be of plant, animal or mineral origin. These are direct part of plants or animals. These are the product of plant or animals. These have well defined cellular structure. These do not have well defined cellular structure. Generally identified by morphological character. Generally identified by organoleptic properties.

14 Importance of crude drugs
Plant-derived medicines are useful therapeutic options and often provide a safe form of therapy. Provide lead compounds for the development of new drugs.

15 classification Classification of crude drugs may include;
Alphabetical classification Morphological classification Pharmacological classification Chemical classification Taxonomic classification

16 Characteristics of an ideal system of classification
An ideal method of classification of crude drugs should be; Simple Easy to use Free from confusion and ambiguities

17 1. Alphabetical classification
Alphabetical classification is the simplest way of classification Crude drugs are arranged in alphabetical order of their: Botanical names Common names Local/ vernacular names

18 The following pharmacopoeia classify crude drugs according to this system:
British Pharmacopoeia British Herbal Pharmacopoeia Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia United States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary European Pharmacopoeia

19 Advantages of alphabetical system of classification
It is easy and quick to use There is no repetition of entries and is devoid of confusion. In this system location, tracing and addition of drug entries is easy

20 Disadvantage There is no relationship between previous and successive drug entries E.g. Acacia, Benzoin, Cinchona, Dill, Ergot, Fennel, Gentian, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Jalap, Kurchi, Liquorice, Mints, Nuxvomica, Opium, Podophyllum, Quassia, Rauwolfia, Senna, Vasaka, Wool fat, Yellow bees wax, Zeodary.

21 2. Morphological classification
In this system, the drugs are arranged according to the morphological or external characters of the plant parts or animal parts. i.e. which part of the plant is used as a drug e. g. leaves, roots, stem

22 3. Pharmacological classification
This involves grouping of drug according to their pharmacological action. This is also referred to as therapeutic classification of drugs. Drugs like digitalis, squill and strophanthus having cardiotonic action are grouped together irrespective of their parts used or their phytoconstituents.

23 Classification of Drugs based on Pharmacological action
Anticancer Vinca, Podophyllum, Taxus Anti-inflammatory Colchicum, Turmeric Antiamoebic Ipecac root, Kurchi bark Antiasthmatic Ephedra, Lobelia Anthelminthic Male fern, Quassia wood Antispasmodic Datura, Hyoscyamus Astringent Catechu Analgesic Opium, poppy Bitter tonic Quassia wood, Nux-vomica, Gentian Carminatives Coriander, fennel, clove, peppermint Purgatives Senna, Rhubarb Expectorant Tulsi, Balsam of Tolu Cardiotonic Digitalis, Squill, Strophanthus Tranquilizers Rauwolfia Roots

24 ADVANTAGE This system of classification can be used for suggesting substitutes of drugs if they are not available at a particular place or point of time. DISADVANTAGE Drugs having different action on the body gets classified separately in more than one group that causes ambiguity and confusion. E.g. Cinchona is an antimalarial drug because of presence of quinine but can be put under the group of drug affecting heart because of antiarrythymic action of quinidine.

25 Chemical Classification
The crude drugs are divided into different groups according to the chemical nature of their relevant constituent. The chemical classification of drugs is dependent upon the grouping of drugs with identical constituents.

26 Chemical classification
Carbohydrates Gums - Acacia, Tragacanth, Guargum Mucilages - Plantago seed Others include Starch, Honey, Agar, Pectin, Cotton

27 2. Glycosides Anthraquinone Glycosides - Aloe, Cascara, Rhubarb, Senna
Saponins Glycosides - Quillaia, Arjuna, Glycyrrhiza Cyanogenetic Glycosides - Cassava Isothiocyanate Glycosides - Mustard Cardiac Glycosides - Digitalis, Strophantus

28 3. Tannins Tannins are astringent, bitter plant based polyphenols that either bind or precipitate proteins. The astringency from tannins causes a dry and puckery feeling in the mouth. E.g.- Guava, Tea

29 4. Volatile oils Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes obtained from plants.
Examples- Cinnamon, Fennel, Dill, Caraway, Coriander, Cardamom, Orange peel, Mint, Clove

30 5. Lipids Fixed oils – Castor, Olive, Almond, Shark liver oil
Fats – Theobroma, Lanolin Waxes – Beeswax, Spermaceti

31 6. alkaloids Nitrogenous substances of plant origin
Pyridine and Piperidine – Lobelia, Nicotiana Tropane - Coca, Belladonna, Datura, Stramonium, Hyoscyamus, Henbane Quinoline – Cinchona

32 Isoquinoline – Opium, Ipecac, Calumba
Indole – Ergot, Rauwolfia Amines – Ephedra Purine bases – Tea, coffee

33 Taxonomic classification
Based on an accepted system of system of botanical classification Grouped into: Kingdom Phylum Order Family Genus Species

34 Allows for precise and ordered arrangement of drugs.
Advantages Allows for precise and ordered arrangement of drugs. Accommodates any drug without ambiguity

35 Major plant drugs currently used in medicine
PLANT SOURCE USE(S) Vinblastine Catharanthus roseus Anticancer Reserpine Rauvolfia serpentina Antipsychoyic, antihypertensive Quinine Cinchona sp. Antimalarial, amoebic dysentery Pilocarpine Pilocarpus jaborandi Antiglucoma Cocaine Erythroxylum coca Topical anesthetic

36 Breast and ovarian cancer
DRUG PLANT SOURCE USE(S) Codeine Papaver somniferum Antitussive Atropine Atropa belladonna Spasmolytic Artemisinin Artemesia annua Antimalarial Taxol Taxus baccata, T. brevifolia Breast and ovarian cancer Allicin Allium sativum Antifungal, amoebiasis Morphine Narcotic analgesic

37 Medical terminologies
Arthritis -Inflammation of a joint Ascites -Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity Asphyxia -Inability to breath Atrophy -Wasting of a tissue or organ Carcinogenic- Causing cancer

38 Medical terminologies
Carcinoma- A malignant epithelial tumour eventually becoming fatal Cardiotonic- An agent that has a stimulating effect on the heart; increasing the strength and tone of the heart. Cardiac depressant- Slowing the action of the heart Carminative Drug- causing the release of stomach or intestinal gas

39 Medical terminologies
Cathartic -Having the power of cleaning the bowels-purgative Decongestant - Relieving congestion, as of the mucous membrane Demulcent – Soothing action on inflammed mucous membranes Dermatitis - Irritation or inflammation of the skin

40 Medical terminologies
Diuretic - Promoting the flow of urine Dysmenorrhoea - Difficult or painful menstruation Dyspepsia – Difficulty in digestion Dysuria - Difficulty or pain while passing urine Emetic -Causing vomiting

41 Medical terminologies
Expectorant - Aiding the secretion of the mucous membrane of the air passages and the removal of fluid Febrifuge - Anything which reduces fever Haematemesis - Vomiting of blood Haematuria - The presence of blood in the urine Heamatinic: Therapeutic agent that causes increase in the heamoglobin content of the blood.

42 Medical terminologies
Insomnia: Difficulty in sleeping or staying asleep. Mydriatic: Drug that causes dilatation of the pupil. Sternutatory: a substance that causes sneezing Vermifuge: a remedy that causes expulsion of worms or parasites. Xerostomia: Anbormal dryness of the mouth


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