2They may be obtained from vegetable, animal and mineral sources. Sources of crude drugsThey may be obtained from vegetable, animal and mineral sources.They form the subject matter of Pharmacognosy.
3Pharmacognosy is concerned mainly with naturally occurring substances of medicinal importance. It is, however, not entirely limited to such substances.
4Others may include substances such as; Surgical dressings prepared from natural fibresFlavouring and suspending agentsDisintegrants
5The term crude drug refers generally to products of plant and animal origin found usually in their raw state/formThe term may also apply to pharmaceutical products obtained from the mineral kingdom.
6Definition of crude drug Crude drugs may be defined as any natural product that has not been advanced in value or improved in condition by any process or treatment beyond that which is essential for its proper packing and prevention from deterioration.
7Sources of crude drugsThe most important natural sources of drugs are;Higher plantsMicrobesAnimalsMarine organisms
8Types of crude drugs2 types exist depending on this type of classification;Organized drugsUnorganized drugs
9Organized drugsThese are drugs obtained from the direct parts of the plants and containing cellular tissuesE.g. Rhizomes, barks, leaves, fruits, entire plants, hairs and fibres
12Unorganized drugsThese are drugs which are prepared from plants by some intermediate physical process such as incision, drying or extraction and not containing any cellular plant tissueE.g. Aloe, honey, beeswax, essential oil
13Differences between organized and unorganized drugs These may be of plant or animal origin.These may be of plant, animal or mineral origin.These are direct part of plants or animals.These are the product of plant or animals.These have well defined cellular structure.These do not have well defined cellular structure.Generally identified by morphological character.Generally identified by organoleptic properties.
14Importance of crude drugs Plant-derived medicines are useful therapeutic options and often provide a safe form of therapy.Provide lead compounds for the development of new drugs.
15classification Classification of crude drugs may include; Alphabetical classificationMorphological classificationPharmacological classificationChemical classificationTaxonomic classification
16Characteristics of an ideal system of classification An ideal method of classification of crude drugs should be;SimpleEasy to useFree from confusion and ambiguities
171. Alphabetical classification Alphabetical classification is the simplest way of classificationCrude drugs are arranged in alphabetical order of their:Botanical namesCommon namesLocal/ vernacular names
18The following pharmacopoeia classify crude drugs according to this system: British PharmacopoeiaBritish Herbal PharmacopoeiaGhana Herbal PharmacopoeiaUnited States Pharmacopoeia and National FormularyEuropean Pharmacopoeia
19Advantages of alphabetical system of classification It is easy and quick to useThere is no repetition of entries and is devoid of confusion.In this system location, tracing and addition of drug entries is easy
20DisadvantageThere is no relationship between previous and successive drug entriesE.g. Acacia, Benzoin, Cinchona, Dill, Ergot, Fennel, Gentian, Hyoscyamus, Ipecacuanha, Jalap, Kurchi, Liquorice, Mints, Nuxvomica, Opium, Podophyllum, Quassia, Rauwolfia, Senna, Vasaka, Wool fat, Yellow bees wax, Zeodary.
212. Morphological classification In this system, the drugs are arranged according to the morphological or external characters of the plant parts or animal parts.i.e. which part of the plant is used as a drug e. g. leaves, roots, stem
223. Pharmacological classification This involves grouping of drug according to their pharmacological action.This is also referred to as therapeutic classification of drugs.Drugs like digitalis, squill and strophanthus having cardiotonic action are grouped together irrespective of their parts used or their phytoconstituents.
23Classification of Drugs based on Pharmacological action AnticancerVinca, Podophyllum, TaxusAnti-inflammatoryColchicum, TurmericAntiamoebicIpecac root, Kurchi barkAntiasthmaticEphedra, LobeliaAnthelminthicMale fern, Quassia woodAntispasmodicDatura, HyoscyamusAstringentCatechuAnalgesicOpium, poppyBitter tonicQuassia wood, Nux-vomica, GentianCarminativesCoriander, fennel, clove, peppermintPurgativesSenna, RhubarbExpectorantTulsi, Balsam of ToluCardiotonicDigitalis, Squill, StrophanthusTranquilizersRauwolfia Roots
24ADVANTAGEThis system of classification can be used for suggesting substitutes of drugs if they are not available at a particular place or point of time.DISADVANTAGEDrugs having different action on the body gets classified separately in more than one group that causes ambiguity and confusion.E.g. Cinchona is an antimalarial drug because of presence of quinine but can be put under the group of drug affecting heart because of antiarrythymic action of quinidine.
25Chemical Classification The crude drugs are divided into different groups according to the chemical nature of their relevant constituent.The chemical classification of drugs is dependent upon the grouping of drugs with identical constituents.
33Taxonomic classification Based on an accepted system of system of botanical classificationGrouped into:KingdomPhylumOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
34Allows for precise and ordered arrangement of drugs. AdvantagesAllows for precise and ordered arrangement of drugs.Accommodates any drug without ambiguity
35Major plant drugs currently used in medicine PLANT SOURCEUSE(S)VinblastineCatharanthus roseusAnticancerReserpineRauvolfia serpentinaAntipsychoyic, antihypertensiveQuinineCinchona sp.Antimalarial,amoebic dysenteryPilocarpinePilocarpus jaborandiAntiglucomaCocaineErythroxylum cocaTopical anesthetic
36Breast and ovarian cancer DRUGPLANT SOURCEUSE(S)CodeinePapaver somniferumAntitussiveAtropineAtropa belladonnaSpasmolyticArtemisininArtemesia annuaAntimalarialTaxolTaxus baccata,T. brevifoliaBreast and ovarian cancerAllicinAllium sativumAntifungal, amoebiasisMorphineNarcotic analgesic
37Medical terminologies Arthritis -Inflammation of a jointAscites -Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavityAsphyxia -Inability to breathAtrophy -Wasting of a tissue or organCarcinogenic- Causing cancer
38Medical terminologies Carcinoma- A malignant epithelial tumour eventually becoming fatalCardiotonic- An agent that has a stimulating effect on the heart; increasing the strength and tone of the heart.Cardiac depressant- Slowing the action of the heartCarminative Drug- causing the release of stomach or intestinal gas
39Medical terminologies Cathartic -Having the power of cleaning the bowels-purgativeDecongestant - Relieving congestion, as of the mucous membraneDemulcent – Soothing action on inflammed mucous membranesDermatitis - Irritation or inflammation of the skin
40Medical terminologies Diuretic - Promoting the flow of urineDysmenorrhoea - Difficult or painful menstruationDyspepsia – Difficulty in digestionDysuria - Difficulty or pain while passing urineEmetic -Causing vomiting
41Medical terminologies Expectorant - Aiding the secretion of the mucous membrane of the air passages and the removal of fluidFebrifuge - Anything which reduces feverHaematemesis - Vomiting of bloodHaematuria - The presence of blood in the urineHeamatinic: Therapeutic agent that causes increase in the heamoglobin content of the blood.
42Medical terminologies Insomnia: Difficulty in sleeping or staying asleep.Mydriatic: Drug that causes dilatation of the pupil.Sternutatory: a substance that causes sneezingVermifuge: a remedy that causes expulsion of worms or parasites.Xerostomia: Anbormal dryness of the mouth