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Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders
Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

2 Anatomy and Physiology
Liver Largest solid organ Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism Blood clotting

3 Anatomy and Physiology
Liver Plays role in: Manufacture of important chemicals Storage of nutrients Gallbladder stores bile until needed Pancreas produces and excretes most intestinal enzymes

4 Animation Click Here to Play Pancreas Animation

5 Common Signs and Symptoms
Liver disease Jaundice Gallbladder and pancreas disease Pain Most common symptom

6 Diagnostic Tests Liver function tests measure bilirubin, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase Ultrasound, x-rays, CAT scan Biopsy Blood tests to measure pancreatic function

7 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Inflammation of liver Causes:
Chemical actions of drugs Toxic substances Chronic alcoholism Group of viruses

8 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Viral hepatitis Symptoms: Most prevalent
Jaundice and liver enlargement Malaise Anorexia

9 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Symptoms: Fever Myalgia and abdominal pain
Dark-colored urine Clay or light-colored stools

10 Liver Diseases Hepatitis Treatment: Prevention: Rest Good nutrition
Good hygiene Special care when handling needles and body fluids

11 Liver Diseases Viral hepatitis occurs in five types Hepatitis A
A, B, C, D, E Hepatitis A Benign Spread by oral-fecal contact

12 Liver Diseases Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Formerly called serum hepatitis
Spread by blood, urine, feces, saliva, and semen Hepatitis C Spread by blood or sexual contact

13 Liver Diseases Hepatitis D Hepatitis E
Delta virus requires presence of hepatitis B to replicate Hepatitis E Spread by oral-fecal contact Commonly due to water contamination

14 Liver Diseases Cirrhosis Chronic, irreversible, and degenerative
Replacement of normal liver cells with nonfunctioning scar tissue Hobnail liver

15 Liver Diseases Cirrhosis Most common cause: Symptoms:
Chronic alcoholism Symptoms: Loss of appetite Nausea Indigestion Weakness Weight loss

16 Liver Diseases Liver cancer Primary and benign tumors of liver rare
Usually discovered late or end stage Diagnosis by biopsy Treatment: Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy

17 Gallbladder Diseases Cholecystitis
Inflammation of gallbladder usually caused by obstruction of bile due to gallstone Diagnosis by ultrasound or cholecystogram

18 Gallbladder Diseases Cholecystitis Symptoms: Treatment:
Mild to severe right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain Nausea and vomiting after eating Treatment: Surgical excision

19 Gallbladder Diseases Cholelithiasis
Gallstones in gallbladder or bile ducts Symptoms: Nausea Vomiting RUQ pain following meals with fat

20 Cholelithiasis

21 Gallbladder Diseases Cholelithiasis Risk factors: Excessive weight
Increasing age Female

22 Gallbladder Diseases Cholelithiasis Five Fs: Female Fair complexion
Fat Fertile Forty or older

23 Pancreas Diseases Pancreatitis Inflammation of pancreas Symptoms:
Severe abdominal pain radiating to back Nausea Vomiting Diaphoresis Tachycardia

24 Pancreas Diseases Pancreatitis
Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis similar to acute Diagnosis by high blood amylase Treatment and prognosis depend on cause

25 Pancreas Diseases Pancreatic cancer
Usually adenocarcinoma occurring in head of pancreas Symptoms: Abdominal and back pain Nausea and vomiting Loss of appetite Weakness and fatigue Jaundice

26 Pancreas Diseases Pancreatic cancer Diagnosis by biopsy Treatment:
Surgical resection Radiation Chemotherapy

27 Rare Diseases Primary biliary cirrhosis Gilbert’s syndrome
Chronic liver disease that gradually destroys bile ducts in liver Gilbert’s syndrome Congenital liver disorder Hemochromatosis Body absorbs and stores excessive amounts of iron

28 Effects of Aging Increased seriousness of infections
Lifestyle risk factors contribute to health outcome Increased bile stones Decreased pancreatic enzymes

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