Presentation on theme: "By Godfrey Aziyo Department of LIS Telephone: 0712 189946."— Presentation transcript:
By Godfrey Aziyo Department of LIS Email: firstname.lastname@example.org@easlis.mak.ac.ug Telephone: 0712 189946
What is data, information and knowledge? How does data become information? How do you generate/create information? How do you store information? How do you transfer/disseminate information? What is the relationship between all the above and ICTs?
Data is: Raw facts It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself) It can exist in any form, usable or not It does not have meaning of itself In computer parlance, a spreadsheet generally starts out by holding data Information is: data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection This "meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be In computer parlance, a relational database makes information from the data stored within it
ICT is an acronym that stands for Information Communications Technology There is no one single agreed upon definition of ICT Its an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application It encompasses radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems etc. It also refers to the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning etc ICT therefore covers any product that stores, retrieves, manipulates, transmits or receives information electronically in a digital form e.g. PCs, television, email, robots. NB: ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries
1. Hardware e.g. a) Recording devices (give examples) b) Storage devices (give examples) c) Communications devices (give examples) d) Output devices (give examples) 2. Appropriate software 3. Services
The nature of information: this covers topics such as the meaning and value of information; how information is controlled; the limitations of ICT; legal considerations Management of information: this covers how data is captured, verified and stored for effective use; the manipulation, processing and distribution of information; keeping information secure; designing networks to share information Information systems strategy: this considers how ICT can be used within a business or organisation as part of achieving goals and objectives
Countless ICT applications online especially with Web 2.0
Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task Sets of instructions that tell hardware what to do Whereas the physical components of the system is referred to as hardware
Computer software may be divided into 3 major classes as; a) Programming software b) Systems software c) Applications software However, the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred 1. Systems software enables other software to run properly, by interfacing with hardware and with other software e.g. operating system such as Windows, Unix, Linux etc 2. Application software enables a user to perform a task e.g. Word Processors, Spreadsheets etc. Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as a hard drive, memory, or RAM) Computers operate by executing the computer program This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation e.g. moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions.
May be divided into 2 categories 1. Standard office applications 2. Specialist applications
Include; 1. Word processing: E.g. Microsoft Word; Write letters, reports etc 2. Spreadsheets: E.g. Microsoft Excel; Analyse financial information; calculations; create forecasting models etc 3. Database software: E.g. Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Access; Managing data in many forms, from basic lists (e.g. customer contacts through to complex material (e.g. catalogue) 4. Presentation software: E.g. Microsoft PowerPoint; make presentations, either directly using a computer screen or data projector. Publish in digital format via email or over the Internet 5. Desktop publishing: E.g. Adobe Indesign, Quark Express, Microsoft Publisher; produce newsletters, magazines and other complex documents. 6. Graphics software: E.g Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator; Macromedia Freehand and Fireworks; create and edit images such as logos, drawings or pictures for use in DTP, web sites or other publications
Include: 1. Accounting package: E.g. Sage, Oracle; Manage an organisation's accounts including revenues/sales, purchases, bank accounts etc. A wide range of systems is available ranging from basic packages suitable for small businesses through to sophisticated ones aimed at multinational companies. 2. Computer Aided Design: Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computers to assist the design process. Specialised CAD programs exist for many types of design: architectural, engineering, electronics, roadways 3. Customer Relations Management (CRM): Software that allows businesses to better understand their customers by collecting and analysing data on them such as their product preferences, buying habits etc. Often linked to software applications that run call centres and loyalty cards for example. 4. Records Management Package: E.g. TRIM (give examples………) 5. Integrated Library Management Systems: E.g. KOHA, Greenstone …