Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Air Masses and Fronts Storms Predicting the Weather."— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of ContentsAir Masses and FrontsStormsPredicting the Weather
2 Comparing and Contrasting - Air Masses and FrontsComparing and ContrastingAs you read, compare and contrast the four types of fronts by completing a table like the one below.Types of WeatherFrontHow It FormsCold frontA cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass.Clouds, possibly storms with heavy precipitationWarm frontA warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass.Clouds, light precipitationStationary frontCold and warm air masses meet, but neither can move the other.Clouds, precipitationOccluded frontA warm air mass is caught between two cold air masses.Clouds, precipitation
3 Types of Air Masses - Air Masses and Fronts Air masses can be warm or cold, and humid or dry. As an air mass moves into an area, the weather changes.
4 Classifying Air Masses - Air Masses and FrontsClassifying Air MassesFour major types of air masses influence the weather in North America: maritime tropical, continental tropical, maritime polar, and continental polar.
5 Air Masses and Fronts What is an air mass? Introduction Pg. 596What is an air mass?An air mass is a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height.Types of Air Masses pg2. Scientists classify air masses according to ____ and ____.temperature and humidity3. Polar air masses typically have low air pressure.False4. Compare/Contrast Chart.A. Maritime TropicalB. Maritime PolarC. Continental TropicalD. Continental Polar
6 Air Masses and Fronts4e. How are maritime tropical and maritime alike, how are they different? They are alike in that they are both humid. They are different because the tropical air mass is warm and the polar air mass is cool. 4.f. How are continental tropical and continental polar air masses alike, and how are they different? They are alike in that they are both dry. They are different because the tropical air mass is warm and the polar air mass is cool.
7 Air Masses and Fronts 7. Drawings: Cold Front Warm Front How Air Masses Move pg. 5995. In the continental United States, major wind belts generally push air masses from ____ to ____.west to east6. How do jet streams affect air masses?As the jet streams blow from west to east, air masses are carried along their track.Types of Fronts pg7. Drawings:Cold FrontWarm Front
8 How a Front Forms - Air Masses and Fronts The boundary where unlike air masses meet is called a front.
9 Types of Fronts - Air Masses and Fronts Colliding air masses can form four types of fronts: cold fronts, warm fronts, stationary fronts, and occluded fronts.
10 Air Masses and FrontsTypes of Fronts: 8. Cold front C- A rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a slowly moving warm air mass 9. Warm front A- A moving warm air mass overtakes a slowly moving cold air mass. 10. Stationary front D- A cold air mass and a warm air mass meet and remain stalled over an area. 11. Occluded front B-A warm air mass is caught between two cooler air masses.
11 Air Masses and Fronts 12. Sentences that are true about fronts: Cold fronts can bring violent thunderstorms.Warm fronts are associated with clouds and rain.Stationary fronts may bring many days of clouds and precipitation.Cyclones and Anticyclones pg13. A swirling center of low air pressure is called a(an) ___.cyclone14. Winds spiral inward toward the center of a cyclone.True
12 Air Masses and Fronts15. What type of weather is associated with cyclones? Storms and precipitation are associated with cyclones. 16. Winds in an anticyclone spin clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. True 17. What type of weather is generally associated with anticyclones? Dry, clear weather is generally associated with anticyclones.
13 Cyclones and Anticyclones - Air Masses and FrontsCyclones and AnticyclonesWinds spiral inward towards the low-pressure center of a cyclone. Winds spiral outward from the high-pressure center of an anticyclone.
14 Weather Fronts Activity - Air Masses and FrontsWeather Fronts ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about weather fronts.
16 - StormsSequencingAs you read, make a flowchart like the one below that shows how a hurricane forms. Write each step of the process in a separate box in the order in which it occurs.Hurricane FormationBegins as a low-pressure area over warm water, or a tropical disturbance.Warm, humid air rises and begins to spiral.As air rises, more warm, moist air is drawn into the system and the hurricane gains energy.As winds spiral inward, bands of high winds and heavy rains form.
17 Thunderstorm Formation - StormsThunderstorm FormationA thunderstorm forms when warm, humid air rises rapidly within a cumulonimbus cloud.
18 StormsIntroduction pg.604What is a storm?A storm is a violent disturbance in the atmosphere.Thunderstorm pg2. Types of clouds in which thunderstorms form:Cumulonimbus3. A sudden energy discharge between parts of a cloud, between nearby clouds, or between a cloud and the ground is called ____.lightning4. Sentences that are true about thunder.You hear it after you see the lightning that caused it.It occurs because lightning heats the air.
19 Storms5. A sudden, violent flood that occurs within a few hours, or even minutes, of a storm is called a(n) ____.flash flood6. Sentences that is a way to stay safe in a thunderstorm:Avoid touching electrical appliancesGet out of the water if you are swimming.Don’t use the telephone.Tornadoes pg7. What is a tornado?A tornado is a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm cloud to touch Earth’s surface.
20 Storms8. Tornadoes develop in the same type of clouds that bring thunderstorms.True9. Sentences that are true about where and when tornadoes occur.Tornadoes occur often in the Great Plains.Tornadoes occur more often in the United States than in any other country.
21 Storms10. Flowchart: 1. Warm air is forced upward along a a._____ front. a. cold 2. As the air rises, it b. _______. b. cools 3. c.______ falls. c. Heavy rain (sometimes with hail) 11. Where is the safest place to be during a tornado? The safest place to be is in the basement of a well-built building.
22 Tornado Formation - Storms Tornadoes can form when warm, humid air rises rapidly in thick cumulonimbus clouds—the same type of clouds that bring thunderstorms.
23 - StormsTornado AlleyTornadoes in the U.S. are most likely to occur in a region known as Tornado Alley.
24 Structure of a Hurricane - StormsStructure of a HurricaneIn a hurricane, air moves rapidly around a low-pressure area called the eye.
25 Hurricane Andrew - Storms The path of Hurricane Andrew over three consecutive days can be seen below.
26 Storms 12.Sentences that are true about a hurricane: Hurricanes pg12.Sentences that are true about a hurricane:It is a tropical storm.It forms over water.13. The center of a hurricane is called the ____.eye14. Hurricanes do not last as long as other storms.False
27 Storms15. A “dome” of water that sweeps across the coast where the hurricane lands is called a(n) ____.storm surge16. If you hear a hurricane warning and are told to evacuate, you should leave the area immediately.TrueWinter Storms17. When does snow fall?Snow falls during a storm when the whole atmosphere is colder than 0 degrees Celsius.
28 Storms 18. Sentences that are true about lake-effect snow: It occurs because land cools more rapidly than water.It occurs when humid air rises over a body of water and later cools over land.19. What should you do if you are caught in a snowstorm?You should try to find shelter from the wind, cover exposed parts of your body, and stay dry. If you are in a car, the driver should keep the engine running only if the exhaust pipe is clear of snow.
29 Lake-Effect Snow - Storms As cold dry air moves across the warmer water, it becomes more humid as water vapor evaporates from the lake surface. When the air reaches land and cools, snow falls.
30 More on Thunder and Lightning - StormsMore on Thunder and LightningClick the Planet Diary button for an activity about thunder and lightning.
31 Click the Video button to watch a movie about tornadoes. - StormsTornadoesClick the Video button to watch a movie about tornadoes.
32 Click the Video button to watch a movie about hurricanes. - StormsHurricanesClick the Video button to watch a movie about hurricanes.
34 Previewing Visuals - Predicting the Weather Before you read, preview Figure 21, a weather map. Then write four questions that you have about the map in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.Previewing Figure 21Q. What type of front is located west of Okalahoma City?A. A cold frontQ. What do the stick symbols indicate?A. Amount of cloud cover, atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed, and temperatureQ. What are the slender, curvy lines?A. Isobars, which join places with the same air pressureQ. What does the symbol to the east of Florida mean?A. A hurricane
35 Predicting the Weather Weather Forecasting pg. 617Scientists who study the causes of weather and try to predicting it are called ____.Meteorologist2. Sources of weather information for meteorologists:RadarInstruments carried by balloonsSatellitesWeather Technology pg3. In what two areas have improvements in technology improved the accuracy of weather forecasts?The areas are gathering weather data and using computers to make forecasts.
36 Predicting the Weather 4. Weather forecasts for over three days into the future are never reliable. False 5. Flowchart: A. weather station B. Satellites C. Computers D. Meteorologists E. Weather forecast
37 Predicting the Weather 5f. What happens to the calculations in step 3 if the data collected is step 1 changes? The calculations would change to reflect the revised weather data. 5g. How would this change what is prepared in step 5? The forecast prepared by meteorologists would change to reflect the revised calculations produced by the computer.
38 Predicting the Weather 6. Sentences that are true about weather balloons or weather satellites:Weather balloons can carry instruments as high as the stratosphere.Weather balloons often carry instruments that measure temperature, air pressure, and humidity.Weather satellites take pictures of Earth from the exosphere.7. Sentences that are true about computer weather forecasts:Computer forecasts are based on weather conditions from many weather stations.When new weather data come in, new computer forecasts are produced.
39 Reading Weather Maps - Predicting the Weather This is the type of weather map produced by the National Weather Service. It shows data collected from many weather stations.
40 Reading Weather Maps - Predicting the Weather Weather maps in newspapers use symbols to show fronts, high- and low-pressure areas, and precipitation. Color bands indicate different temperature ranges.
41 Reading Weather Map Symbols - Predicting the WeatherReading Weather Map SymbolsThe figure below shows what various weather symbols mean.
42 Predicting the Weather Reading Weather Maps pg8. What data are indicated by symbols on a weather map?The symbols indicate amount of cloud cover, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, wind speed, and temperature for individual weather stations. Weather maps also show the location of air masses and fronts.9. What are the temperature, air pressure, and wind direction at the weather station represented by the symbol show?The temperature is 55 degrees Farenheight, the air pressure is 1028 millibars, and the wind is from the south-west at miles per hour.
43 Predicting the Weather 10. Isobars B-Lines on a weather map joining places that have the same air pressure. 11. Isotherms A- Lines on a weather map joining places that have the same temperature 12. What do the standard symbols on newspaper weather maps show? The symbols show fronts, areas of high and low pressure, types of precipitation, and temperature range.
44 Predicting the Weather 13. The “butterfly effect” refers to the fact that a small change in the weather today can mean a larger weather change in the future. True
45 Predicting the Weather Key Terms:StormPolarMaritimeIsobarsOccludedTropicalLightningIsothermsTornadoHurricanemeteorologist
46 Red Sky - Predicting the Weather A red sky is one kind of observation that helps people to predict the weather.
47 Computer Weather Forecasting - Predicting the WeatherComputer Weather ForecastingScientists use computers to develop different models of how a front may move. These predictions are then used to make weather forecasts. As more data become available, some models are found to be incorrect, while others are found to closely fit the predicted conditions. The upper graph shows the predicted air pressure from two models. The lower graph shows actual data for air pressure.
48 Computer Weather Forecasting - Predicting the WeatherComputer Weather ForecastingReading Graphs:What two variables are being graphed?Time of day and air pressure
49 Computer Weather Forecasting - Predicting the WeatherComputer Weather ForecastingInterpreting Data:How is air pressure predicted to change according to each model in the top graph?According to model A, air pressure will drop slightly then increase. According to model B, air pressure will steadily decrease.
50 Computer Weather Forecasting - Predicting the WeatherComputer Weather ForecastingInferring:Which computer model most closely matches the actual air pressure data?Model B
51 Computer Weather Forecasting - Predicting the WeatherComputer Weather ForecastingPredicting:What weather would you forecast for Monday and Tuesday? Explain.Stormy weather, clouds, and precipitation accompany low air pressure.
52 Click the Planet Diary button for an activity about weather maps. - Predicting the WeatherMore on Weather MapsClick the Planet Diary button for an activity about weather maps.
53 Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about Doppler radar. More on Doppler RadarClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about Doppler radar.
55 Graphic Organizer Typical Time of Year Type of Storm Where Forms Safety RulesWithin large cumulonimbus cloudsSeek shelter, avoid trees and water.ThunderstormsSpring or SummerMove to a storm shelter or basement if possible; stay away from windows and doors.TornadoCumulonimbus cloudSpring, early summerOver warm ocean waterLate summer and into autumnEvacuate or move inside a well-built building.Hurricane