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Other Landmark Supreme Court Cases
Gideon v. Wainwright, Miranda v. Arizona, Tinker v. Des Moines, New Jersey v. TLO
Gideon V. Wainright (1963) In Florida in 1961, Clarence Earl Gideon was found guilty of breaking and entering. He was sentenced to 5 years in prison. Gideon appealed the case citing that he was denied counsel guaranteed in the Constitution. Where in the Constitution does it explain this right to counsel? The SCOTUS heard the case and granted Gideon a new trial. With a court appointed public defender, Gideon was found not guilty. The “Gideon Rule” upheld the 6th Amendment guarantee of counsel of all poor persons facing a felony.
Other Cases Miranda V. Arizona
Miranda arrested without being informed of his rights The case upheld a citizens rights to fair trials by ensuring that people know their rights. Tinker v. Des Moines High School District Wearing black arm bands to protest Vietnam. Students can exercise free speech if it does not disrupt classwork, create disorder, or interfere with the rights of others. New Jersey v. TLO A high school student was searched and arrested for drugs. She appealed citing the 4th Amendment. 4th Amendment rights are eased in a school setting and searches only require reasonable suspicion and not probable cause.
The U.S. Court System There are two separate court systems in the United States (The Dual Court Sytem) The national judiciary The state court systems There are two types of federal courts. The U.S. Supreme Court The lower federal courts Federal Courts have jurisdiction over most federal cases. Most cases in the U.S. are heard in state and local courts.
The Appellate Process Courts with original jurisdiction
Courts that hear cases first Courts with appellate jurisdiction Courts of appeals. Cases may be appealed all the way up to the Supreme Court
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