2 INTRODUCTIONIn hydroelectric power station potential and kinetic energy of stored water is converted into electric energy .For hydro power station factors like rainfall,steam flow available head and storage facilities are studied.25% of electricity generation capacity in world is provided by hydel power plant.In the countries like Norvey 99% electricity is produced by hydelpowerplant.
3 4% of the total hydel energy potential in world is in India. In India 25.32% of total electricity generation capacity is produced by hydel power plant.As per rocords of March ,816 MW electricity was generated by hydel power plant.It is increasing day by day because of the institutes like National Hydro Power Corporation Limited(NHPCL).
8 According to availability of water:- a) Run of river plant without pondageb) Run-off river plant with pondagec) Storage plantd) Pump storage plantAccording to head :-a) Low head plantb) Medium head plantc) High head plantAccording to load :-a) Base load plantb) Peak load plant
9 According to plant capacity:- a) Microhydal plant (upto 5 MW )b) Medium capacity plant ( MW )c) High capacity plant (100 MW )d) super plant ( above 100 MW )According to place of power house:-a) Surface power house plantb) Under ground power house plantAccording to turbine specific speed:-a) High specific speed plantb) Medium specific speed plantc) Low specific speed plant
10 WATER TURBINES USED IN HYDEL POWER PLANT PELTON TURBINEFRANCIS TURBINEKAPLAN TURBINE
13 ADVANTAGES OF HYDEL POWER PLANT This plant is free from pollution.Its operation and maintenance cost is less.It has no stand by losses.Unit cost of power is less.Hydraulic turbines can be started speedily.The plant has longer service life.No fuel is required.No change in efficiency with the age.
14 Disadvantages of hydel power plant Initial cost of dam and plant is high.The availability of power from it is not much reliable.Loss of forest creates environmental problems.Due to evaporation , considerable water is lost.Time required for construction of hydroproject is more.
15 AUXILIARIES ATTACHED WITH HYDEL POWER PLANT. (B)Mechanical instrumentsShaft coupling,journal bearings,thrust bearingsLubricating oil systemCooling systemBrake system for generator-turbine shaft(A)Electrical instrumentsGeneratorExciter,transformersSwitch gearsOther instruments of control room
16 Overview of sardar sarovar PLACE:- On Narmada river, Kevadia( Narmada district ) 100 km away from Baroda.DAM:- Height mLength-1210 m concrete.Max.surface of river mRESERVOIR:-378 square kms, lingth:214kmwidth: 16.1km*
17 TURBINE:-(A) River head power house :--- 6 x 200 =1200 MW capacity-- Reservoir Turbine, made in Japan.(B) For canal head power house:--- 5 x 50 =250 MW capacity-- Kaplan turbines are used.
18 DISTRIBUTION IN MILLION ACRE FOOT Water distribution in sardarsarovarSTATEDISTRIBUTION IN MILLION ACRE FOOTMadhyapradesh18.25Gujarat9.00Maharashtra0.25Rajsthan0.50
19 Overview of Hydroelectric project ukai PLACE :- On the river Tapi, near Ukai, Surat.DAM :- ~Lenth: m concrete dam.~Height: 68.58m~ m dam of soil.RESERVOIR :-~120 km length and average 5 km width.~capacity: MAFT (million act fit)
21 Lets see few of the International Hydel Power Plant Dam…
22 Arch DamMonticello Dam impounds Putah Creek west of Sacramento, California. The solid concrete structure stands 93 m (304 ft) tall. The dam’s arched upstream face transfers some of the pressure from its reservoir, Lake Berryessa, onto the walls of the canyon.
23 Kariba Arch DamThe Kariba Dam lies along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The facility controls flooding and supplies hydroelectric power to both countries. A public road traces the rim of the dam, between reservoir Lake Kariba and the drop to the Zambezi River. The distinct arch shape distributes pressure evenly on the overall structure of the dam.
24 G and P Corrigan/Robert Harding Picture Library Hoover DamThe Hoover Dam is an arch-gravity dam on the Colorado River. Its reservoir, Lake Mead, lies between the states of Arizona and Nevada. As an arch-gravity dam, it depends on its shape and its own weight for stability.
25 Lake MeadLake Mead, a vast artificial lake, straddles the border between Arizona and Nevada. The lake was formed by the construction of the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River. During wet periods, it stores excess water until it is needed. Lake Mead has also become a popular area for boating and other recreational activities.
26 Buttress dams fall into two basic categories: Flat slab andMultiple arch.Flat slab buttress dams have a flat upstream face.These dams are sometimes called Ambursen dams in recognition of Nils Ambursen, the Norwegian-born American engineer who popularized them in the early 20th century.An example of a flat slab buttress dam is the Stony Gorge Dam, which crosses Stony Creek near Orland, California.It stands 42 m (139 ft) tall, stretches 264 m (868 ft) long, and contains 33,000 cubic meters (43,100 cubic yards) of concrete.
27 Flat Slab Buttress DamLake Tahoe Dam impounds the Truckee River in northern California. Like all flat slab buttress dams, it has a flat slab upstream face supported by a series of buttresses on the downstream side. Lake Tahoe Dam measures 5.5 m (18 ft) tall and 33 m (109 ft) long. It was completed in 1913 to raise the water level in Lake Tahoe, a natural lake, to provide additional water for crop irrigation..
28 Multiple arch buttress dams feature an upstream face formed by a series of arches. The arches rest on top of buttresses that extend down to the foundation.Bartlett Dam, on the Verde River near Phoenix, Arizona, is a multiple arch dam.It stands 94 m (309 ft) high, stretches 244 m (800 ft) long, and contains nearly 140,000 cubic meters (182,000 cubic yards) of concrete.
29 Multiple Arch DamBartlett Dam impounds the Verde River northeast of Phoenix, Arizona. Like all multiple arch dams, Bartlett Dam makes use of a series of arches supported by buttresses to withstand the pressure of the water in its reservoir, Bartlett Lake. Each of the dam’s 10 concrete arches has a 7-m (24-ft) radius and measures 2 m (7 ft) at the base and just 0.6 m (2 ft) at the crest. The thick base provides additional strength at the bottom of the reservoir, where the water pressure is most intense.
30 Concrete Gravity DamShasta Dam impounds the Sacramento River in northern California. Like all concrete gravity dams, Shasta Dam holds back the water in its reservoir, Shasta Lake, by the sheer force of its weight. Built of solid concrete, the massive structure rises 183 m (602 ft). It measures 165 m (542 ft) at the base and just 9 m (30 ft) at the crest. This shape, typical of concrete gravity dams, counteracts the force of the water pressing against the dam at the bottom of the reservoir, where the pressure is most intense.
31 Grand Dixence DamWith a height of 285 m (935 ft), the Grand Dixence Dam in the Swiss Alps is one of the tallest dams in the world. Waterpower generates the majority of Switzerland’s domestic electricity and is the nation’s most important natural resource.
32 Raúl Leoni Hydroelectric Plant, Venezuela Located on the Caroní River in Venezuela,the Raúl Leoni hydroelectric plant provides electricity for the entire country.The plant was built on the site of a village called Guri and is named for a Venezuelanpresident who served from 1964 to 1968.
33 World’s Largest DamsBy Power Generating CapacityRankName of DamLocationRated Capacity (Megawatts)Year of Completed1ItaipuBrazil/Paraguay12,60019842GuriVenezuela10,30019683Grand CouleeUnited States6,48019424Sayano-ShushenskRussia6,40019805Krasnoyarsk6,0006La Grande 2Canada5,32819827Churchill Falls5,22519718Bratsk4,50019649Ust-Ilim197410TucuruiBrazil4,245
34 World’s Largest DamsBy Storage CapacityRankName of DamCountryStorage Capacity Cubic MetersYear of Completed1Owen FallsUganda204,80019542KaribaZimbabwe /Zambia180,60019593BratskRussia169,27019644Aswan HighEgypt168,90019705AkosomboGhana148,00019656Daniel JohnsonCanada141,85219687Guri (RaulLeoni)Venezuela136,00019868Krasnoyarsk73,30019679W.A.C. Bennett70,30910Zeya68,4001978
35 World’s Largest Dams By Height Rank Name of Dam Country Height (m) Year of Completed1RogunTajikistan33519892Nurek30019803Grand DixenceSwitzerland28519614InguriGeorgia2725BorucaCosta Rica26719906VaiontItaly2627ChicoasenMexico2618Manuel M. Torres19819Alvaro Obregon260194610Mauvoisin2501957W