Presentation on theme: "You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics"— Presentation transcript:
1 You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics
2 Why Chemistry?The professional cosmetologist needs to understand the chemicals he/she works with in order to:- safely perform chemical services requested by clients,- teach clients how to care for their hair following chemical services,- and, sell products to their clients.
3 Matter Anything that occupies space; exist in 3 forms: Solids – weight, volume, shapeLiquids – weight, volume, no shapeGasses – weight, indefinite volume and shapeLiquidGas
5 Organic Matter Matter that is now living or was alive at one time. Ex. - Plants and animalsPlants and Mulch Humans Animals
6 Inorganic MatterMatter that is NOT alive or has never been alive; does not contain carbon.Ex. – rocks, water, mineralsRock – Granite Water Mineral - Quartz
7 Changes In Matter Physical Change Chemical Change Change the characteristics without making a new substance.Ex. – Ice MeltingChemical ChangeA change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance.Ex. – Rust – oxygen mixed with metal creates rust (or iron oxide)
8 Elements that make up hair # Element Symbol Form6 Carbon C Solid8 Oxygen O Gas1 Hydrogen H Gas7 Nitrogen N Gas16 Sulfur S Solid
10 Atoms Molecules Smallest complete unit of an element. Atoms combine chemically to formof amino acids.Molecules
11 Amino Acids Compounds of C,O,H,N 22 Common amino acids Join together in chains to make proteins
12 Protein Hair is made up of protein called keratin Hair is 97% keratin and 3% trace mineralsHair contains 19 of 22 common amino acids.
13 End Bonds (Peptide Bonds) Backbone of all protein moleculesLinks the amino acid protein chains together end to end.Do not disturb the end bond, this could destroy the protein structure.If broken, protein chains separate into small fragments, or revert to groups of amino acids that no longer have the characteristics of hair.RESULT – VERY DAMAGED HAIR!
14 Amino Acid Chains are held together by 3 side bonds: Hydrogen Bond:Makes up about 35% of hairs strength.Individually very weak and can easily be broken by heat or water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair.Salt Bond:Also broken by water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair.Disulfide Bond:Most important to a CosmetologistMuch stronger than hydrogen or salt bonds.Not broken by heat or water. Only a chemical change.Example – permanent wave
15 How the Side Bonds Work Salt Bond Amino Acid Chain Disulfide Bond Hydrogen Bond
16 How Hydrogen and Salt Bonds are Broken by Water Water molecules can easily break hydrogen and salt bonds when the water molecules move in between the bonds. When the water molecules are not present the hydrogen and bonds come back together.H H2O H H2O H H2O H H2O H H2O HHydrogen Bonds broken by water molecules
17 Stages of Hair Formation 5. The individual protein chains bond to other chains by hydrogen bond, salt bonds and disulfide bonds.3.Amino acids unite to form peptide or end bonds.2.Unite to become molecules of amino acids.1.Begins with individual atoms.6. Hair4. Amino acids create polypeptide protein chains.