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You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics

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Presentation on theme: "You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics"— Presentation transcript:

1 You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics

2 Why Chemistry? The professional cosmetologist needs to understand the chemicals he/she works with in order to: - safely perform chemical services requested by clients, - teach clients how to care for their hair following chemical services, - and, sell products to their clients.

3 Matter Anything that occupies space; exist in 3 forms:
Solids – weight, volume, shape Liquids – weight, volume, no shape Gasses – weight, indefinite volume and shape Liquid Gas


5 Organic Matter Matter that is now living or was alive at one time.
Ex. - Plants and animals Plants and Mulch Humans Animals

6 Inorganic Matter Matter that is NOT alive or has never been alive; does not contain carbon. Ex. – rocks, water, minerals Rock – Granite Water Mineral - Quartz

7 Changes In Matter Physical Change Chemical Change
Change the characteristics without making a new substance. Ex. – Ice Melting Chemical Change A change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance. Ex. – Rust – oxygen mixed with metal creates rust (or iron oxide)

8 Elements that make up hair
# Element Symbol Form 6 Carbon C Solid 8 Oxygen O Gas 1 Hydrogen H Gas 7 Nitrogen N Gas 16 Sulfur S Solid

9 Anatomy of a Hair Strand

10 Atoms Molecules Smallest complete unit of an element.
Atoms combine chemically to form of amino acids. Molecules

11 Amino Acids Compounds of C,O,H,N 22 Common amino acids
Join together in chains to make proteins

12 Protein Hair is made up of protein called keratin
Hair is 97% keratin and 3% trace minerals Hair contains 19 of 22 common amino acids.

13 End Bonds (Peptide Bonds)
Backbone of all protein molecules Links the amino acid protein chains together end to end. Do not disturb the end bond, this could destroy the protein structure. If broken, protein chains separate into small fragments, or revert to groups of amino acids that no longer have the characteristics of hair. RESULT – VERY DAMAGED HAIR!

14 Amino Acid Chains are held together by 3 side bonds:
Hydrogen Bond: Makes up about 35% of hairs strength. Individually very weak and can easily be broken by heat or water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair. Salt Bond: Also broken by water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair. Disulfide Bond: Most important to a Cosmetologist Much stronger than hydrogen or salt bonds. Not broken by heat or water. Only a chemical change. Example – permanent wave

15 How the Side Bonds Work Salt Bond Amino Acid Chain Disulfide Bond
Hydrogen Bond

16 How Hydrogen and Salt Bonds are Broken by Water
Water molecules can easily break hydrogen and salt bonds when the water molecules move in between the bonds. When the water molecules are not present the hydrogen and bonds come back together. H H2O H H2O H H2O H H2O H H2O H Hydrogen Bonds broken by water molecules

17 Stages of Hair Formation
5. The individual protein chains bond to other chains by hydrogen bond, salt bonds and disulfide bonds. 3.Amino acids unite to form peptide or end bonds. 2.Unite to become molecules of amino acids. 1.Begins with individual atoms. 6. Hair 4. Amino acids create polypeptide protein chains.

18 Hair Shaft

19 Cuticle Layer

20 Close Look at the Cuticle Layer

21 Chemistry of Cosmetics
Cosmetic Classifications Based on how well a substance combines and its physical characteristics

22 Solutions Mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules Do not separate
Can be solid, liquid or gas

23 Suspensions Mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules Separates
Needs to be shaken Example: Vinegar and Oil

24 Emulsions 2 or more non-mixable substances united by a binder (gum).
Example: oil in water (perms) Example: water in oil (cold cream)

25 Ointments Mixture of organic substance and a medicinal agent
Semi-solid form No water Example: Lipstick

26 Soaps Mixtures of fat and oil converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified.

27 Powders Equal mixtures of inorganic and organic substances that do NOT dissolve in water. Sifted and mixed until free of coarse grit.

28 Shampoo Cleans the scalp and hair
Removes all foreign debris without adversely affecting scalp and hair.

29 How Shampoo Works A push pull action is caused by a surface active agent causing the oil to “roll up” into droplets that are lifted and rinsed away.

30 Has water loving and oil loving ends.
Surfactant Surface active agent Has water loving and oil loving ends. Surfactant Molecule Oil Loving Water Loving

31 The tail of the shampoo molecule is attracted to oil and dirt

32 Shampoo causes oil to roll up into small globules

33 During rinsing, the heads of the shampoo molecules attach to water molecules and cause debris to roll off.

34 Thorough rinsing washes away debris & excess shampoo.

35 The Role of Water Universal solvent Neutral pH Hard water = minerals
Hard to lather Soft water preferred (allows lather)

36 Types of Shampoos

37 All Purpose Low Alkaline Low surfactants Mild, does not strip color
Example: Redken Clear Moisture

38 Plain Usually strong High alkaline Not for chemically treated hair
Follow with acid rinse Ex: Baby shampoo Doesn’t burn eyes because it’s high in alkaline and so are eyes.

39 Soapless Shampoo Able to lather without harsh alkaline ingredient
Works in soft and hard water

40 Acid - Balanced Made to have same pH as the skin and hair
Will not strip color

41 Medicated Often must have prescription
Designed to treat scalp and hair problems

42 Clarifying Removes residue Such as product build-up.

43 Anti-Dandruff Control dandruff
Massage scalp vigorously and rinse thoroughly

44 Liquid Dry Used when client can’t receive normal shampoo
Works with wigs Evaporates from hair Very drying

45 Powder Dry For bedridden clients
Orris root powder absorbs oil and dirt as product is brushed through the hair. Don’t use prior to chemical service.

46 Conditioning Contain animal, vegetable or mineral additives that enter cortex or coat cuticle. Improve strength and porosity.

47 Color Contain temporary color molecules that stick to outer cuticle of hair.

48 For Thinning Hair Gentle Lighter molecular weight
Provides healthy environment for hair growth.

49 Rinses and Conditioners

50 Rinses and Conditioners give hair the appearance of Shine and Luster

51 Porosity - Amount of moisture in the hair.
Hair Porosity is the ability of the hair to retain & absorb moisture, determined by how raised or compact the cuticle layers are.

52 Porosity Test

53 How easily a comb passes through the hair.
Manageability How easily a comb passes through the hair.

54 Elasticity The hairs ability to stretch and return to its natural shape without breaking.

55 Types of Rinses

56 Vinegar and Lemon Rinse
Acid rinses Remove soap scum Counteract alkalinity.

57 Cream Rinse Soften Add luster Only slightly acidic

58 Control dandruff and minor scalp conditions.
Medicated Rinse Control dandruff and minor scalp conditions.

59 Conditioners

60 Instant Conditioner Coat the hair shaft Restore moisture and oils
Do NOT penetrate into the cortex Not for fine limp hair

61 Normalizing Contain vegetable protein
Acidic pH causes cuticle to close after chemical services.

62 Body-Building Required for fine, limp hair Deposits protein
Can use prior to chemical services

63 Moisturizing Humectants bind and hold moisture in the hair.
Avoid use for several days following perm (may go limp)

64 Customized Formulated to meet special needs Ex. Moisture and color


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