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Industrial Revolution Portfolio By Wheejoon. Crop Rotation and Seed Drill Wind, water and humans were only power Crop rotation was found by Turnip Townshend.

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution Portfolio By Wheejoon. Crop Rotation and Seed Drill Wind, water and humans were only power Crop rotation was found by Turnip Townshend."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution Portfolio By Wheejoon

2 Crop Rotation and Seed Drill Wind, water and humans were only power Crop rotation was found by Turnip Townshend Crop rotation made the soil nutritious Crop Rotation is the concept of rotating different crops in different strips of field and rotating them year- round Only one nutrition in one plot of land was bad, so farmers rotated crops Better soil texture and more efficient growing Seed Drill invented by Jethro Tull to make seed holes faster, efficient and accurate Jethro Tull helped bring the agricultural revolution Wheat and farm-grown food sky-rocketed Population increased and health did because of efficient food supply Caption: The photo of the seed drill is showing how the seed drill works. Site: http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/sow.html

3 Enclosed Lands Lands were more private and was enclosed Enclosed lands led to easy access, more private, and more Animals couldn’t eat the food from enclosed lands because of the fences Efficient farming let people have more time in their hands People started studying, finding talents and inventing new machines to help their everyday life Enclosed properties of lands let owners do their own stuff without trouble Enclosed lands let domestication of animals much more easier Once lands were enclosed, it was owned by someone The owner had full control over the land and was allowed to do anything on the land Caption: Two men are sitting on a fence that is Enclosed to keep the cows from Running away and it also shows signs Of property and wealthy-ness Site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00b1m9b

4 Selective Breeding Selective breeding means to choose which two animals to breed with to purposely make the off springs special or fatter Farmer’s did selective breeding because they want more bigger animals for more meat The “fat” gene is passed down generations to make fatter animals Fatter animals give the farmer more meat The more meat the farmer produce, the more food there will be More food increases the health and population of humans Sometimes the “less-fat” gene can be bred into the offspring That’s why farmers try and breed the fat ones with each other Since selective breeding costs money, farmers Usually fenced them into enclosed properties of Land Caption: The picture on the right represents how most Selective breeding works but it also show that the Offspring might not become what you want/ Expect it to become. Site: http://www.mindthesciencegap.org/2012/11/19/mommy-where-do-baby-turkeys-come- from/selective-breeding-of-turkeys/http://www.mindthesciencegap.org/2012/11/19/mommy-where-do-baby-turkeys-come- from/selective-breeding-of-turkeys/

5 Agricultural Revolution Terminology “Crop Rotation” Definition: To rotate crops around strips of fields throughout a year-span and each year, different crops are in different strips of field. “Seed Drill” Definition: A type of Machine built to make accurate seed holes. The machine was created by Jethro Tull and it made other farmer’s lives easier because of the fast, efficient and accurate seed holes. “Enclosure” Definition: Sealing lands with fencing to stop animals from eating an owner’s crops. Also can be used to seal animals and showing ownership of the animals. “Selective Breeding” Definition: Carefully selecting two animals to breed together to purposely make the animal however the farmer wants it. The farmer would breed two fat animals for fat off springs. Few farmers thought it would’ve been good to breed big animals with big animals to create even bigger animals.

6 Essential Question (Agricultural Revolution) Question: How did the Agricultural Revolution affect individuals, the community, and/or the world? Answer: The Agricultural Revolution affected everyone during the 1700’s to now. It affected individuals by making their every day life easier and more simple. The seed drill helped farmers make seed holes faster, more efficient and more accurate. Every seed hole would be the exact same width and height. Enclosed lands made crops more easier to control, easier for animals to be controlled and was more private. Enclosed lands protected crops from being eaten by wild animals and people might have had to pay a fee to use part of the owner’s land. Selective breeding also made the lives of the community and the world different. Selective breeding is the action

7 Factory Innovation and Labor Changes Factories became more popular in the city so people moved out of farms and went into cities Factories had human labor but paid well during that time Factories led to child labor and caused factories to back down in popularity Jobs in factories paid decently well and so people left farms and houses to work in the city People started losing jobs because of the cotton gin People used to pick seeds out of cottons by hand but after cotton gin, seed pickers lost their jobs Slave labor became popular because it was so cheap and efficient Slavery increased for the cotton gin Child labor was also used as factory slaves Children missed out on school and instead worked in the factories Children didn’t have a choice because they usually worked in the factory to either pay debt or help their families earn more money Caption: The photo here represents the slaves that might’ve worked for a rich Person to plant/harvest the rich wo/man’s field Source: http://www.thelandmagazine.org.uk/articles/short-history-enclosure-britain

8 Factory Assembly Line During the factory, people thought of assembly lines Assembly lines are technically just like roles/parts that individual people had to do Assembly lines made doing factory jobs more easier Creating new products were more efficient but not really accurate with the exact product Each person had one job and if one person messed up in their role, other people won’t be able to do their own role/part in creating the product Assembly line roles meant lots of work and responsibilities so back then, it paid pretty decent Before factories and assembly lines, people worked in cottage industries Cottage industries were too in-accurate and not efficient Factories were made when cottage industries were working poorly Caption: In the Photo, we see a few adults working as an Assembly line and we can also see that one worker Has the responsibility to do his/her own job Or others might fail Source: http://techpinions.com/why-apple-manufacturing-needs-few-workers/13088

9 English Textiles 1733, John Kay invented the fly-shuttle A fly-shuttle allowed only one person to work a hand loom when a hand loom needed two People panicked that the fly-shuttle would take them out of work so they attacked John Kay The weaver of the fly-shuttle typically needed around 4-10 people to do the spinning After a generation, James Hargreaves, in 1765, invented a spinning machine James Hargreaves’ spinning machine, jenny, spin 8 threads simultaneously Later models of the Jenny let the machine spin to over 100 threads simultaneously By 1778, England had over 20,000 working spinning jennies A hand loom took 1000 hours to create 22 pounds of cotton yarn First model of the spinning Jenny took 400 hours to make 22 pounds of yarn In 1830, the latest model took 20 hours to make 22 pounds of yarn 1769, Richard Arkwright created water powered spinners 10 years later, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning Jenny with Richard Arkwright’s water powered spinner 1770, England used 8 million pounds of cotton to make thread and clothing 1790, 37 million pounds of cotton was used to make thread and clothing In 1815, 100 million pounds were used and by 1830, 250 million pounds of cotton was used to create thread and clothing

10 Steam Power James Watt found out the way to power a piston By using hot and cold water, the piston made trains and automobiles move When hot water was steamed, the steam made the lever go up, pushing the cold water down The cold water then cools down the lever and makes it rise back up and then the steam again heats up the lever making it go up The process is then repeated when the piston is going up and down, making objects move The object has to be something that has the piston as the engine and the piston connected to some wheel of some sort Steam power didn’t need the power of animals, but it needed the minimum power of human The steam power engine needed to be looked over and be controlled by a human just in case a problem was to occur in the engine Caption: In the photo here, it sort of shows a rough sketch of what a 18 th century steam power engine looks like and it also sort of shows how the engine works but the image is too small. Source: http://www.uh.edu/engines/powersir.htm

11 Iron Works England found iron ores and coals as a natural resource in the ground England created furnaces and used coal as the power for fire and got iron out of the ores With Iron, England could create products with much more durability and easy to use When making Iron product, the product might’ve been too heavy to carry around Most items were replaced for iron when originally was wood England had tons of iron ores, making them seem like they had unlimited amount England used more of irons instead of wood and basically replaced everything with iron Caption: The picture here shows an 18 th century English furnaces that used to melt iron ores and use the iron to create items Source: http://www.visitcumbria.com/sl/duddon-ironworks/

12 Factory Innovation Terminology “Factory” Definition: A place where numerous amounts of workers are there and are working to create one product a company is known for. “Steam Power” Definition: Power that is based off of steam. Also known as a piston in the modern world and also found in many machinery. “Steam Engine” Definition: A type of train known as “the Iron Horse” due to it’s speed compared to walking/riding a horse. “Textile Industry” Definition: An Industry where making cloth and clothing was the main priority “Cottage Industry” Definition: A company/industry that was the home of the owner that only worked at his/her own house. “Spinning Jenny” Definition: A spinner that span threads simultaneously and was made by James Hargreaves. “Iron Works” Definition: Iron ores were put in furnaces and melted to take the iron out and use the iron to create items

13 Factory Innovations and Labor Changes Question Question: How did the development of the factory system and changes in labor affect individuals, community, and or the world. Answer: The labor changes affected individuals because the slaves individually have been gone through lots of hours of work. The assembly lines and the creation of factories impacted the communities because lots of farmers left the agricultural area and went to the city area. Textiles impacted the world because clothing gave warmth and the creation of ships and transportation was massive because clothing was able to sell around the world and lots of companies made lots of money selling clothing. Steam engine was also impacting lots of communities and most of the world because when it was created, the speed made everything go very fast such as transportation, moving cargos and just about anything to do. The only downside was the steam engine needed lots of railing.

14 Transportation Transportation was very poor in the 18 th century Since the transportation was poor, news travelled too slow The only transportation in the 18 th century was horses and they weren’t as fast as cars and they weren’t durable and easily tired Every horse tired out sometime so people made “stations” for people to switch horses Canals were created but were expensive to create the canals Even if it was expensive, Canals were very effective in the 18 th century Canals had no waves so the entire man-made river was very effective and fast Since the canals had no waves, boats were allowed to sail upstream and down stream Man-Power was effective enough while it lasted Man-Power wasn’t as effective as present innovation The development of roads helped out transportation as well Special roads were made, called “turnpike”

15 Canals Canals were man-made and took time but it was very worth it because there was no current Canals were effective because it allowed boats to go up stream and down stream The new transportation made moving faster Horses were used to guide the ship towards it destination by getting pulled on a long rope connecting to the ship The horses were separated by the long ropes so they can pull the boats The canals were very effective with transportation and cargos People used lots of canals all around Britain until roads were created Canals were later upgraded to more technologic-like canals Caption: This photo is a photo of an 18 th century canal even has another canal bridge going right Over the other canal below. Source: http://unenumerated.blogspot.jp/2011/06/trotting-ahead-of-malthus.html

16 Steam Ship Steam ships were created after discovering the steam power Steam ships were very big because now, people can ship around the world Instead of only selling the products to only their own country/city/town, people were allowed to sell their products globally Although the steam ships were slow, there were more advantages as well, like being able to sell around the world Even if the steam ships had advantages there were disadvantages such as having limited space of the canal Canals were very popular in the 18 th century so there were lots of steam ships Caption: In the photo here we see how the ships looked like in the 18 th century. Source: http://connecticuthistory.org/steam-railroads-transform-connecticut-travel-and-commerce/

17 Roads Roads were made for the automobiles and horse carriages Auto mobiles were created after the discovery of oil and coal Usually roads were free because no one really had to create roads Later, people created certain roads called turnpikes and the people who used the road had to pay People spent time on smoothing the dirt and making horse stations so they felt like they needed extra payment for their hard work Turnpikes also took some time to create and had to be very good so that people used it Turnpikes these days are known as highways Since there was no electricity back then, people had to manually charge “customers” that used their roads instead of our “ETC” machine Roads led to the creating of railroads and the steam engine Caption: The image here on the right shows what most Roads looked like back then and how the road Doesn’t look as steady and firm as the roads of today. Source: http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/bynpwllr/byroad.htm

18 Railroads Railroads were made when canals were starting to wear out Railroads were meant for steam engines Railroads took up lots of land space, limiting the area to a certain space Steam engines rode on the railroads The railroads guided the steam engine to where to go Railroads were expensive and the land was beginning to decrease Even if it took lots of space, money and time, the railroads were great success thanks to the steam engine Railroads were different from roads because only steam engines were able to ride on it Automobile’s tires weren’t designed to be rode on railroads The steam engine had its own special type of wheel so it can ride on the railroad Caption: In this image, we see that people are trying to create The railroad and they seem to be having a hard time Carrying around the logs and metals to create the Railroads Source: http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/gatransportphotos/railroadtracks.htm

19 Steam Engine Created by James Watt Travelled by railroads and was very fast Since the steam engine was so fast, people nicknamed the new machinery, the “Iron Horse” Mostly rich and wealthy families owned a lot of steam engines People who owned steam engines wanted to make money so they charged passengers Passengers had to pay around 2 dollars each While having the steam engine, most of transportation was very convenient and easier to carry around the country Only bad thing about the steam engine was that it wasn’t able to carry people overseas The steam engine was a massive boost to both speed of transportation and distance When it took a long time for horses to go to one city to another (around a month), it would take the steam engine a few days Although it was an advantage, there were disadvantages as well Steam engines were limited to where they were able to travel to Caption: In the photo here, it shows 3 men, most likely the owners of the steam engine and shows how big the steam engine was comparing to a human Source: http://connecticuthistory.org/steam-railroads-transform-connecticut-travel-and-commerce/

20 Transportation Terminology “Canal” Definition: A man-made river that has no current that allows the ships to go either upstream or downstream. No rocks or any obstacle in the way. “Road” Definition: A passage that sort of leads the vehicle to its destination and has routes. Usually meant for horse carriages and automobiles but no steam engines were able to ride on the roads. “Railroad” Definition: A road that is only for steam engines. Specially designed for steam engines and took up a lot of space/land. Automobiles and horse carriages weren’t able to ride on the railroads because the wheels weren’t designed to be riding on railroads “Steam Engine” Definition: A machinery nicknamed “Iron Horse” for its speed and durability. The steam engine is very fast and took only a few days to be able to go from city to city. It was only able to ride on railroads and not on other roads. It’s steam powered so that’s why it’s called a steam engine. “Steam Ship” Definition: A steam powered ship that rides on canals and the sea. The steam ship was very effective because it is able to transport people or luggage over seas and made moving around countries more easier.

21 Transportation Essential Question Question: How did Transportation Innovations affect individuals, communities and the world? Answer: Transportation Innovations affected mostly communities because it let everyone get to a destination faster and made transportation very easy for nearly everyone in the community. The community had canals that could transport stuff through water, had steam engines to go fast but limited areas, and had automobiles that could go nearly every where except for the sea. Canals were like private roads for boats to go places more easily because there was no current, or any obstacle in the way of the canal. The canal was used very frequently throughout England and also in many parts of America. Steam engines were very massive because of the speed but it was very limited of its area of where it can move and travel to. It took a few days to get to city to city but steam engines usually had very limited roads of where it could go. Steamships were also very massive because it brought the new idea of travelling and transporting through water and now, England was able to sell products overseas easily. Steam ships were also limited as well, because canals usually were very hard to make and took lots of money, time and dedication to complete a canal.

22 Child Labor Source: http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmet h/0111152a.html Caption: Here we see a little boy around the age of 7 and 8 working at a factory and the boy looks malnourished and looks like has bad health. Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/n chist-newcentury/5015 Caption: On the picture to the right, a girl is sewing a clothing and looks like she’s working hard.

23 Child Labor Child labor was a big problem before the Industrial Revolution Child labor was used commonly all around England during the 19 th century Children had delicate hands unlike adults Children had more advantages such as body, size and hands, yet they also had disadvantages The disadvantages were health and strength of a child An adult is usually more stronger than a child, but children had smaller hands Children also learned really well, known as manipulation, unlike adults Children fit in small holes Labor was cheap in England and children were cheaper Age of 7-13, children were sent to become apprentices and were treated bad Children as young as 6 were taken and used in factories Factory owners were abusing the rules and snatched homeless kids from the street and even went to orphanages Children were awaken at early hours and went home at late times The owners didn’t feel bad for the children, especially the ones who had the harder jobs to do Most children were malnourished and had poor health By the 1830’s, laws were passed for child labor More laws were passed about protecting children from hard labor

24 Coal Mines Coal mines were dangerous to children Coal mine owners didn’t care about the safety of the children and just sent them down the coal mine Breathing coal dust was very dangerous because it led to Black Lungs making children very ill Some kids had to carry bunch of coal by having a big cart on tied to their backs and have them pull them all the way to the surface and walk down the coal mine again Sometimes, tunnels would collapse or flood and that cause many workers to die If the tunnel ever does collapse or flood, the owner had to find more workers Coal mines made more money than working in factories because it was way more dangerous and had more time and effort put into it Even if coal mines paid more, it wasn’t a lot more, most likely few dollars or even cents more The coal mine might even explode so the workers were risking their lives Coal mining was important because coal powered steam engines and factories Caption: The picture here shows a few kids and maybe an adult Pulling a coal cart across a very small tunnel Source: http://www.soziologie-etc.com/med/ziv-u-korr/medizinkartell/medk-ENGL/02-cholera-TB-food-care- parcels.html

25 Factory/Mills Labor Young children worked in factory and mills Factories and mills were dangerous because of the dangerous machines Kids usually died trying to work those machines If lucky, the kid would probably lose a limb instead of dying The children there were paid very little and did lots of work so it was a very good deal for the factory owner but not such a good deal for the children The families usually sent their kids to work because they were in either in debt or had very little money for themselves Rich families had the money to send their own children off to school so those children were very lucky but most families were usually poor Most of the work the kids do were more harder, took more time and made them pay less debt Kids died working as a “scavenger” who looks for missing pieces under a machine and usually gets the limb or hair caught, causing the machine to either eat the child or explode Caption: The child here we see is working on a child and is most likely a Child slave that works for a rich factory owner who treats their Slaves bad. Source: http://forums.canadiancontent.net/history/43948-luddites.html

26 Child Labor Terminology “Coal Mine” Definition: A mine where a natural stone is found. Coal is used to power up factories, steam powered machines and make fire “Labor” Definition: Labor is the same word as work and it means to have someone work for you or work for someone. The word is linked to the word work. “Factory” Definition: A place where lots of workers gather around to work for one company and cooperate with each other to create the products the factory sells and meets the owner’s satisfaction. “Child Labor” Definition: The possession of a child slave and using the child to work under a boss of a factory or any other company. Usually child labor was used for factories but laws were passed in the 1830’s to stop child labor. “Mill” Definition: A type of factory but isn’t a big company. Mills are usually pretty small companies doing their own specialty such as the cotton mill.

27 Child Labor Essential Question Question: How did Child Labor affect individuals, society or the community? Answer: Child Labor affected mostly individuals and communities. Individuals were the children being held to work and having them work tireless hours every day. The community is affected as well because the factory owner is cruel enough to get a kid and use him as a worker. The parents are also affected by child labor because they have to send off their children to work and risk their lives and education. Around 1830’s, child labor laws were passed down to stop child labor but the laws were very minor and didn’t really make a difference but later on, the government passed out more laws that had consequences and actually made factory owners not to hire children. Children were sent to schools like they were supposed to and studied instead of working dangerous, tiring hours of work by a cruel factory owner. Although laws were passed by the government, there are law breakers and people still do child labor, even if it is illegal and they feel like they have an advantage over other factories. Even though people do sometimes use children, most of the factory owners got rid of children in case the government finds out and shuts their business down.

28 Government and Social Issues During the 1800’s, because child labor was big, and the government didn’t realize that the factory owners treated kids so abusive and cruelly Socially, since factory owners took children and made them work instead of school, the next generations of kids would be uneducated The government didn’t have lots of power over people Socially, 1800’s were horrible for nearly every family The government didn’t really care about lots of other things back then If the social and government were more serious about child labor, then most kids wouldn’t be as badly treated

29 Luddites Luddites are people who rioted because of their labor The people who riot were known as luddites and went on being known as Luddism Luddites went around to their abusive companies and destroyed the place The police were later involved and had to protect factories and cottage industries from being destroyed The government rewarded anyone 50 pounds for anyone who was able to give information about the Luddites The government wanted to stop the Luddites from destroying companies Luddites were very violent and destroyed many companies Caption: Here we see 2 Luddites working for a carpentry Company and they later protest against the bad health and food care Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luddite

30 Social Issues Parents didn’t care about their children so they sent their children to work Factory owners didn’t feel pity for the children slaves People protested about too much hours of work The workers wanted more Democratic rights Famous Carl Marks was one of the most socialists Napoleon rose from power but went back down Painters/artists were starting to become popular Campaigns were made Robert Owen, another socialist The concept of Communism sounded good to most people Capitalism was also a very big problem Laws were finally passed People still thought the idea of having one leader was good

31 Government Issues Laws were passed so people don’t break any rules People fought against the government because of bad laws Was a Peterloo massacre where the army was drunk and people were wounded/killed Cause of Peterloo Massacre was after Napoleon War, famine struck People were looking for jobs but protested People looked for jobs but was getting out of control and had to call the army The leader of the protest was named Henry Hunt 15 people were killed and 400-700 were injured Caption: In the image here we see the army fighting against the protestors of the Peterloo Massacre Source: http://www.learnhistory.org.uk/cpp/peterloo.htm

32 Government and Social Issues Terminology Communism Definition: A type of party where theres only one leader who rules them all Luddism Definition: A group of people who protested against the army and the government for the poor working conditions and hours Peterloo Massacre Definition: A huge massacre that led to 15 deaths and 400-700 wounded. The massacre was started because of the workers who didn’t like the working conditions

33 Government and Social Issues Essential Question Question: How did Government and Social Issues affect Individuals, Communities and the World? Answer: Government and Social issues affect mostly Communities like companies and factories because of the labor. People who worked under abusive and cruel companies/factories were very mad and became violent, leading to death of a lot of people and companies being destroyed. The government were scared of these people and rewarded anyone 50 pounds of money to anyone who got information about the violent, company-wrecking people. The people were later known as Luddites and anyone who follow Luddism were known as Luddites. Luddites later caused the well-known Peterloo Massacre, leading to 15 people dying, and over 500 wounded people. Socially, children and laborers were being taken more everyday until the government made laws that can stop the harsh treatment towards laborers and children.

34 Second Industrial Revolution Period of technology and advanced mechanism America started inventing new machines In the country, lots of people had time to work different jobs American government liked the idea of the growing of businesses One of the most successful economic revolutions America had enough natural resources They also had markets that were growing and lots of cheap labor The government supported agricultural and industrial development The American government also allowed people to remove Indians from their lands for the desired farmer or mining companies The transition from, farming in old farms, to new technology was so rapid, it was unbelievable By 1913, the US companies produced nearly 1/3 of the world’s industrial productions The second industrial revolution was the cause of the Gilded Age, a time for either extreme wealth or poverty

35 Railroad People who owned railroads were usually very wealthy Made lots of money by transporting people and cargo Many objects and locations were named after wealthy railroad owners Creating railroads was very expensive People were able to transport things miles away, even across a state Having the ability to transport products across the country, people took advantage and sold their products around the country, making more money Railroads were expensive, and they also took very long to make because of the poor technology Railroads had a standard national gauge, making every railroad the same The railroads had same width and same material Caption: In the photo here, this “stop” looks like a train stop and it seems to be newly made because of the railroad and the new building Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susquehanna_(Erie_Railroad_stationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susquehanna_(Erie_Railroad_station)

36 Steel Steel was more durable than iron Steel was also more cheaper than iron Instead of making objects and buildings out of iron, people replaced iron with steel Steel was manually made instead of iron, being a natural resource Steel was used to create railroads Most objects were rebuilt to have steel instead of iron Steel was forged from iron and made more steel than iron Iron was more expensive than steel and was more heavier Steel was more overall better than iron Caption: This is an iron forge from the 19 th century and the man standing in front of the forge seems to be like a patrol man. Source: http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-164592/A-19th-century-illustration-depicts-workers-operating-a- steam-hammer

37 Standard National Gauge Every state agreed to make the railroads the same width Made every train in the US travel on any railroad Since they made every railroad the same, goods were able to be taken from the Eastern side of America to the Western side, and vise versa 1890’s 5 train routes led the train from East to West of America 1883, railroad companies created time-zones Won’t be confusing about the time and more convenient American-made products were able to sell nearly world-wide and around more states Caption: In the photo here, it explains how the Standard National Gauge is and it also shows the width and the length of the railroad Source: http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/rail/2011/r11d0099/r11d0099.asp

38 Electricity Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity Thomas Edison, later created the light bulb and an electric circuit The light bulb was fast, cheap and very convenient for people The electric circuit connected to the light bulb and made the light bulb glow The light bulb was able to burn light for around 13 and a half hours The demand for light bulbs and electricity grew bigger and bigger Cities had bought tons of light bulb and stated looking more present-day like Electricity was very popular and companies who sold light bulbs were successful 1903, first steam turbine engine created Pulverized coal was used to power and generate electricity from the turbine Caption: Here’s a sign, most likely from the 20 th century, explaining that instead of lighting the light bulb with a match, you flick a switch and it turns on. Source: http://www.wrensnest.org/old-timey-ads-and-joel-chandler-harris-fear-of-electricity/

39 Industrial Capitalist Known as “Captain of Industry” or “Robber Bacon” A person who was smart and worked hard for the economy Industrial Capitalist was usually very wealthy Made lots of money and smart (economically) Usually the boss of his own company and owned more Job of an Industrial Capitalist was to make other companies/businesses bankrupt Usually bought the company and kicked the employees and bosses out Made the companies/businesses look bad around them When an Industrial Capitalist buys a company, they ran others out of their own businesses to have less competition Companies with the similar productions usually tried to run themselves out of each others businesses

40 Investor-Owned Utility Also known as IOU, Investor-Owned Utility is just companies selling their products Managed privately instead of having the government manage the company Usually, the family manages their own company Although, international countries can own IOU’s, mostly common for a family to manage one If needed, the family can make a secondary income for someone else Caption: Here is a picture of America and the companies that are IOU’s around the entire country Source: http://users.rcn.com/patrick.mehr/background.shtml

41 John Rockefeller John Rockefeller was able to buy almost every oil refinery in the United States of America Oil was a very important natural source so Rockefeller made lots of money He owned nearly 90% of America’s natural oil Oil was very trending because of automobiles One of the wealthiest men in the entire country Slowly, oil companies started being taken over by others Made lots of money by selling oil Start of using oil as a resource Caption: Here is John Rockefeller, one of the richest man in history And still would’ve been if he had lived in our present time. Source: http://www.leadership-with-you.com/john-d-rockefeller-leadership.html

42 Second Industrial Revolution Terminology Electricity Definition: Electricity is a matter that cannot be seen but can be easily felt. If the electricity is very powerful, though, people may be able to see it, such as lightning Light Bulb Definition: A copper coil inside a glass sphere that lights up by electricity if it is connected to an electric circuit or electric source Turbine Generator Definition: Railroads Definition: A railroad is a special road specifically made to help trains transport around the entire country of America. Without railroads, most goods wouldn’t be able to be transported around. Industrial Capitalist Definition: A man who is in the most control over the economy. Usually a wealthy man trying to make other companies go bankrupt.

43 Second Industrial Revolution Essential Question Question: How did the Second Industrial Revolution affect individuals, communities and the world? Answer: The second industrial revolution affected the world. The innovations from the second industrial revolutions were major and still used to this day. Mostly every innovations were modified to now, but some innovations were lucky enough to keep the same form as it was when it was first created, such as the light bulb. It also affected the individuals into having much more easier lives than normal. Individuals learnt that transportation was important for carrying goods around the country. It’s also important to learn about the importance of our government and their own country’s government and economy.


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