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Foundations of Leadership Studies

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Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Leadership Studies"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundations of Leadership Studies
Chapter 15 Leadership 201 Foundations of Leadership Studies

2 Chapter 15 Theoretical Perspectives on Leadership: The Contingency/Situational Approaches Situational Theory Path–Goal Theory Contingency Model

3 Where Are We Now? Trait theories Behavioral theories
Chapter 15 Trait theories Behavioral theories Situational/contingency theories Fiedler's Contingency Model Path-Goal Theory Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory (next class)

4 Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership
Chapter 15 Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Leader Effectiveness = f (leader style, situation favorability) Group performance is a result of interaction of two factors. Leadership style Situational favorableness

5 Leadership Style Leadership Style
Chapter 15 Leadership Style This is the consistent system of interactions that takes place between a leader and work group. An individual's leadership style depends upon his or her personality and is, thus, fixed

6 Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)
Chapter 15 Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) The least-preferred coworker (LPC) scale classifies leadership styles. Describe the one person with whom he or she worked the least well with. From a scale of 1 through 8, describe this person on a series of bipolar scales: Unfriendly Friendly Uncooperative Cooperative Hostile Supportive Guarded Open

7 Relationship oriented:
Leadership Styles Chapter 15 Relationship oriented: A high LPC score suggests that the leader has a human relations orientation Task oriented: A low LPC score indicates a task orientation. Fiedler's logic: Individuals who rate their least preferred coworker in a favorable light derive satisfaction out of interpersonal relationship; those who rate the coworker unfavorably get satisfaction out of successful task performance

8 Situation Favorability
Chapter 15 Situation Favorability The degree a situation enables a leader to exert influence over a group The focus is on three key situational factors Leader-member relations Task structure Position power

9 Situation Favorability
Chapter 15 1. Leader-member relations: The degree to which the employees accept the leader 2. Task structure: The degree to which the subordinates jobs are described in detail 3. Position power: The amount of formal authority the leader possesses by virtue of his or her position in the organization.

10 When to Use Which Style?? Leader-Member Relations Position Power
Chapter 15 Contingency Model 1 Strong 2 Weak High 3 4 Low Good 5 6 7 8 Poor Leader-Member Relations Task Structure Position Power Preferred Leadership Style Low LPCs Low LPCs High LPCs

11 Fielder’s Contingency Model
Chapter 15

12 Implications Chapter 15 1. The favorableness of leadership situations should be assessed 2. Candidates for leadership positions should be evaluated using the LPC scale 3. If a leader is being sought for a particular leadership position, a leader with the appropriate LPC profile should be chosen 4. If a leadership situation is being chosen for a particular candidate, a situation should be chosen which matches his/her LPC profile

13 House & Mitchell’s Path–Goal Theory
Chapter 15 Leadership style is effective on the basis of how successfully leaders support their subordinates’ perceptions of: Goals that need to be achieved Rewards for successful performance Behaviors that lead to successful performance

14 House & Mitchell’s Path–Goal Theory
Chapter 15 Leaders can influence subordinates’ motivation by: Teaching employees competencies needed Tailoring rewards to meet employees’ needs Acting to support subordinates’ efforts

15 Assumptions of Path–Goal Theory
Chapter 15 1. A leader’s behavior is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that they view it as either an immediate source of satisfaction or as an instrument to some future satisfaction. 2. A leader’s behavior will increase subordinates’ efforts if it links satisfaction of their needs to effective performance and supports their efforts to achieve goals.

16 Path–Goal Theory Leadership Behavior
Chapter 15 Instrumental behavior (task-oriented) Supportive behavior (employee-oriented) Achievement-oriented behavior (employee-oriented) Participative behavior (employee-oriented)

17 Path–Goal Theory Situational Factors
Chapter 15 Personal characteristics of subordinates Work environment

18 Path–Goal Theory Situational Factors
Chapter 15 Personal Characteristics of Subordinates Abilities Self-Confidence Personal Needs and Motivations Perception of Leaders

19 Path–Goal Theory Situational Factors
Chapter 15 Work Environment Exercise of Power Culture and Subculture Policies and Rules Structure of Tasks Management Philosophy

20 Choosing a Leadership Style
Chapter 15 Leaders need to choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and the task they are doing.

21 Path-Goal Theory Chapter 15 Subordinates Goals/Productivity Motivation

22 Applying Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Chapter 15 Fill out the LPC Determine whether you are task or relationship oriented. Think of a leadership situation in which you were not optimally effective and/or one in which you excelled Evaluate the situation(s) Does your experience support Fiedler’s theory?

23 Contingency theory: Strengths
Chapter 15 Supported by a lot of empirical research Looks at the impact of the situation on leaders It is predictive It does not require that people be effective in all situations It provides a way to assess leader style that could be useful to an organization

24 Contingency Theory: Weaknesses
Chapter 15 Black box: Why? There is some doubt whether the LPC is a true measure of leadership style It is cumbersome to use Doesn't explain what to do when there is a mismatch between style and situation Other situational variables, like training and experience, have an impact in a leader's effectiveness

25 Path Goal Theory: Strengths
Chapter 15 It specifies four conceptually distinct varieties of leadership Explains how task and subordinate characteristics affect the impact of leadership The framework provided in path-goal theory informs leaders about how to choose an appropriate leadership style. It attempts to integrate the motivation principles into a theory of leadership. Provides a practical model

26 Path Goal Theory: Weaknesses
Chapter 15 It is very complex. It has received only partial support from the many empirical research studies that have been conducted to test its validity. It fails to explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation. This approach treats leadership as a one-way event-the leader affects the subordinate.

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