Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Leadership Studies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Foundations of Leadership Studies Chapter 15Leadership 201Foundations of Leadership Studies
2 Chapter 15Theoretical Perspectives on Leadership: The Contingency/Situational ApproachesSituationalTheoryPath–Goal TheoryContingency Model
3 Where Are We Now? Trait theories Behavioral theories Chapter 15Trait theoriesBehavioral theoriesSituational/contingency theoriesFiedler's Contingency ModelPath-Goal TheoryHersey-Blanchard Situational Theory (next class)
4 Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Chapter 15Fiedler's Contingency Theory of LeadershipLeader Effectiveness = f (leader style, situation favorability)Group performance is a result of interaction of two factors.Leadership styleSituational favorableness
5 Leadership Style Leadership Style Chapter 15Leadership StyleThis is the consistent system of interactions that takes place between a leader and work group.An individual's leadership style depends upon his or her personality and is, thus, fixed
6 Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Chapter 15Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)The least-preferred coworker (LPC) scale classifies leadership styles.Describe the one person with whom he or she worked the least well with.From a scale of 1 through 8, describe this person on a series of bipolar scales:Unfriendly FriendlyUncooperative CooperativeHostile SupportiveGuarded Open
7 Relationship oriented: Leadership StylesChapter 15Relationship oriented:A high LPC score suggests that the leader has a human relations orientationTask oriented:A low LPC score indicates a task orientation.Fiedler's logic:Individuals who rate their least preferred coworker in a favorable light derive satisfaction out of interpersonal relationship; those who rate the coworker unfavorably get satisfaction out of successful task performance
8 Situation Favorability Chapter 15Situation FavorabilityThe degree a situation enables a leader to exert influence over a groupThe focus is on three key situational factorsLeader-member relationsTask structurePosition power
9 Situation Favorability Chapter 151. Leader-member relations:The degree to which the employees accept the leader2. Task structure:The degree to which the subordinates jobs are described in detail3. Position power:The amount of formal authority the leader possesses by virtue of his or her position in the organization.
10 When to Use Which Style?? Leader-Member Relations Position Power Chapter 15Contingency Model1Strong2WeakHigh34LowGood5678PoorLeader-MemberRelationsTask StructurePositionPowerPreferredLeadershipStyleLowLPCsLow LPCsHigh LPCs
12 ImplicationsChapter 151. The favorableness of leadership situations should be assessed2. Candidates for leadership positions should be evaluated using the LPC scale3. If a leader is being sought for a particular leadership position, a leader with the appropriate LPC profile should be chosen4. If a leadership situation is being chosen for a particular candidate, a situation should be chosen which matches his/her LPC profile
13 House & Mitchell’s Path–Goal Theory Chapter 15Leadership style is effective on the basis of how successfully leaders support their subordinates’ perceptions of:Goals that need to be achievedRewards for successful performanceBehaviors that lead to successful performance
14 House & Mitchell’s Path–Goal Theory Chapter 15Leaders can influence subordinates’ motivation by:Teaching employees competencies neededTailoring rewards to meet employees’ needsActing to support subordinates’ efforts
15 Assumptions of Path–Goal Theory Chapter 151. A leader’s behavior is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that they view it as either an immediate source of satisfaction or as an instrument to some future satisfaction.2. A leader’s behavior will increase subordinates’ efforts if it links satisfaction of their needs to effective performance and supports their efforts to achieve goals.
22 Applying Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Chapter 15Fill out the LPCDetermine whether you are task or relationship oriented.Think of a leadership situation in which you were not optimally effective and/or one in which you excelledEvaluate the situation(s)Does your experience support Fiedler’s theory?
23 Contingency theory: Strengths Chapter 15Supported by a lot of empirical researchLooks at the impact of the situation on leadersIt is predictiveIt does not require that people be effective in all situationsIt provides a way to assess leader style that could be useful to an organization
24 Contingency Theory: Weaknesses Chapter 15Black box: Why?There is some doubt whether the LPC is a true measure of leadership styleIt is cumbersome to useDoesn't explain what to do when there is a mismatch between style and situationOther situational variables, like training and experience, have an impact in a leader's effectiveness
25 Path Goal Theory: Strengths Chapter 15It specifies four conceptually distinct varieties of leadershipExplains how task and subordinate characteristics affect the impact of leadershipThe framework provided in path-goal theory informs leaders about how to choose an appropriate leadership style.It attempts to integrate the motivation principles into a theory of leadership.Provides a practical model
26 Path Goal Theory: Weaknesses Chapter 15It is very complex.It has received only partial support from the many empirical research studies that have been conducted to test its validity.It fails to explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation.This approach treats leadership as a one-way event-the leader affects the subordinate.