Presentation on theme: "International Students: Employment Opportunities and Pathways to Permanent Immigration Metropolis Conference, March 12-15, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
International Students: Employment Opportunities and Pathways to Permanent Immigration Metropolis Conference, March 12-15, 2014
To provide an overview of: International student trends Current work programs for international students Current immigration options for international students Purpose 2
International Students International students enrich the academic environment, enhance the intercultural competencies of domestic students, and serve as unofficial ambassadors after returning to home countries Opportunities for international students to gain Canadian work experience during and after their studies, through work permit programs, help prepare those interested in immigration for the labour force while also filling labour market needs Canadian work experience provides international students with opportunities to qualify for permanent residence through a number of immigration programs Canadian work experience matters: temporary residents who transition to permanent residency having had a work permit have better economic outcomes Over the last 5-6 years the Government of Canada has implemented programs to make Canada more attractive as a permanent destination, especially for skilled temporary residents with Canadian work/study experience 3
Numbers of International Students Increasing Annual entries increasing in recent years —104,810 international students entered Canada in 2012 Total number of students residing in Canada also increasing —265,404 international students residing in Canada (as of December 1, 2012) Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2012. 4
Student Entries by Level of Study Largest share of international students destined to universities —42,912 students entered Canada at university level in 2012 (41% of Canadian total) 26,196 students entered in the “Other PSE” category (25% of Canadian total) 23,757 students entered at K-12 level (23% of Canadian total) Student Entries by Level of Study, 2011-12 Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2012. 5
Work Opportunities for International Students Working On Campus -Any course/program delivered by a university, community degree-granting college, CÉGEP, publicly funded trade/technical school, or private institution authorized by provincial statute to confer degrees -No work permit required, no need for a Labour Market Opinion Working Off Campus -Any publicly funded, post-secondary educational institution or certain programs in private post-secondary institutions authorized by provincial or territorial statute to confer degrees, located within a province/territory that has signed an MOU with CIC -Open work permits for duration of study, without need for a Labour Market Opinion Co-op and internships -Any university, college or school -Work must be an essential part of the program of studies and not exceed 50% of the total length of the program -Open work permits for duration of study, without need for a Labour Market Opinion Spousal Employment -Spouses of international students eligible for open work permits without need for a Labour Market Opinion Post Graduation Work Permit -Any course/program delivered by a university, community degree-granting college, CÉGEP, publicly funded trade/technical school, or private institutions authorized by provincial statute to confer degrees -Open work permits for up to three years, without need for a Labour Market Opinion 6
Recent Innovations Recent program improvements further facilitate work access during studies for international students —Extension of Off-Campus Work Permit Program to private degree-granting institutions in most provinces/territories (2008) —Regulatory change to allow international students to work off- campus without a work permit as soon as studies commence (2014) 7
8 Post-Graduation Work: A Bridge to Immigration Streams The Post-Graduation Work Permit Program allows students who have graduated from public, post-secondary institutions, private degree-granting institutions, and some private institutions in Quebec to work post-graduation. Program expanded in 2008 to allow international students to work in any occupation for up to 3 years after graduation. Skilled Canadian work experience gained through this program helps graduates qualify for permanent residence in Canada through the Canadian Experience Class.
9 Post-Graduation Work: Attracting and Retaining Students in Canada In spring 2012 CIC conducted a survey of 5,000 Post-Graduation Work Permit holders, with 18% response rate Overall results suggest that the Post-Graduation Work Permit Program is effective in allowing international students to find suitable work in Canada and a strong majority of respondents are currently employed in a job related to their area of study and in the same province in which they studied Majority of respondents worked during their studies; the majority of these through the Off-Campus Work Permit Program Majority of respondents indicated that the Program attracted them to study in Canada and that subsequent opportunities to apply for permanent residence influenced their decision to apply for a Post-Graduation Work Permit
Canadian Work Experience Matters Average Employment Earnings by Transition Type and Years Since Landing, tax year 2011 All ImmigrantsEconomic PA Average employment earnings are highest for those who previously worked in Canada as TR and, again, higher for those who transitioned to Economic PAs 10 Employment Earnings of PRs who transitioned from TR – with and without a Work Permit (WP)
11 Transition programs for international students Canadian Experience Class (CEC) Twelve months of skilled work experience in Canada in the three years before application for PR. National Occupational Classification (NOC) skill types 0, A or B. Minimum English and/or French requirements commensurate with the occupation in which skilled work experience was gained in Canada. Québec Experience Program (PEQ) Plan to live in Québec. Québec graduates who have obtained an eligible Québec diploma and have a knowledge of spoken French. Temporary foreign workers who are employed at time of application, have held a skilled job in Québec for at least 12 of the last 24 months and have a knowledge of spoken French. Federal Skilled Worker (FSW) PhD candidate eligibility stream. International student enrolled in a PhD program in Canada, or graduate of a PhD program in Canada. 1,000 applications for processing each year. Provincial Nominee Programs (PNP) Most provinces and territories can nominate people to immigrate to Canada. Requirements vary somewhat from program to program.
12 Post-Graduation Work Permit Holders: Transitions to PR The majority of PGWPP holders transitioned to PR through the CEC in 2012. The number of PGWPP holders transitioning to PR through the CEC increasing year-over- year. Following the CEC, the Skilled Worker and PNP streams are the most accessed transition streams by PGWPP holders. Source: Citizenship & Immigration Canada, RDM, Facts and Figures 2012
Work programs for international students provide them opportunities to gain exposure to the Canadian labour market and to gain the experience required to qualify for permanent immigration Canadian work experience matters, allowing for better economic outcomes for those students and other foreign nationals that are exposed to the Canadian labour market prior to immigrating Over the last five to six years policy changes have been implemented to make Canada more attractive as a permanent destination, especially for skilled temporary residents with Canadian work/study experience Conclusions 13