# When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T Describe the short-run policy tradeoff between.

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When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T Describe the short-run policy tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. 1 Distinguish between the short-run and long-run Phillips curves and describe the shifting tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. 2 Explain how the Fed can influence the expected inflation rate and how expected inflation influences the short-run tradeoff. 3

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Short-run Phillips curve A curve that shows the relationship between the inflation rate and the unemployment rate when the natural unemployment rate and the expected inflation rate remain constant. Figure 32.1 on the next slide shows a short-run Phillips curve.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE The natural unemployment rate is 6 percent. This combination, at point B, provides the anchor point for the short-run Phillips curve. The expected inflation rate is 3 percent a year.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE The short-run Phillips curve passes through points A, B, and C and is the curve SRPC. A lower unemployment rate brings a higher inflation rate, such as at point A. A higher unemployment rate brings a lower inflation rate, such as at point C.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE  Aggregate Supply and the Short-Run Phillips Curve The AS-AD model explains the negative relationship between unemployment and inflation along the short- run Phillips curve. The short-run Phillips curve is another way of looking at the upward-sloping aggregate supply curve. Both curves arise because the money wage rate is sticky in the short run.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE When the price level changes but the money wage rate doesn’t change, the real wage rate changes and so does the quantity of labor demanded and the quantity of real GDP supplied. A change in real GDP also changes the unemployment rate, and a change in the price level also changes the inflation rate.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Unemployment and Real GDP At full employment, the quantity of real GDP is potential GDP and the unemployment rate is the natural unemployment rate. If real GDP exceeds potential GDP, employment exceeds its full-employment level and the unemployment rate falls below the natural unemployment rate.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Similarly, if real GDP is less than potential GDP, employment is less than its full employment level and the unemployment rate rises above the natural unemployment rate. Okun’s Law For each percentage point that the unemployment rate is above the natural unemployment rate, there is a 2 percent gap between real GDP and potential GDP.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Inflation and the Price Level The inflation rate is defined as the percentage change in the price level. So starting from any given price level, the higher the inflation rate, the higher is the current period’s price level. Figure 32.2 on the next slides shows the short-run Phillips Curve and the aggregate supply curve

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Point A on the Phillips curve corresponds to point A on the aggregate supply curve: The unemployment rate is 5 percent and the inflation rate is 4 percent a year (in part a), and real GDP is \$10.2 trillion and the price level is 104 (in part b).

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Point B on the Phillips curve corresponds to point B on the aggregate supply curve: The unemployment rate is 6 percent and the inflation rate is 3 percent a year (in part a), and real GDP is \$10 trillion and the price level is 103 (in part b).

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Point C on the Phillips curve corresponds to point C on the aggregate supply curve: The unemployment rate is 7 percent and the inflation rate is 2 percent a year (in part a), and real GDP is \$9.8 trillion and the price level is 102 (in part b).

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Aggregate Demand Fluctuations Aggregate demand fluctuations bring movements along the aggregate supply curve and equivalent movements along the short-run Phillips curve.

32.1 THE SHORT-RUN PHILLIPS CURVE Why Bother with the Phillips Curve? First, it focuses directly on two policy targets: the inflation rate and the unemployment rate. Second, the aggregate supply curve shifts whenever the money wage rate or potential GDP changes, but the short-run Phillips curve does not shift unless either the natural unemployment rate or the expected inflation rate change.

32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...  The Long-Run Phillips Curve The long-run Phillips curve is a vertical line that shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment when the economy is at full employment. Figure 32.3 shows the long-run Phillips Curve.

The long-run Phillips curve is a vertical line at the natural unemployment rate. In the long run, there is no unemployment-inflation tradeoff. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...

No Long-Run Tradeoff Because the long-run Phillips curve is vertical, there is no long-run tradeoff between unemployment and inflation. In the long run, the only unemployment rate available is the natural unemployment rate, but any inflation rate can occur.

32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...  Long Run Adjustment in the AS-AD Model In the long run, the money wage rate rises by the same percentage as the increase in the equilibrium price level, so the price level rises and real GDP is at potential GDP. Figure 32.4 on the next slide illustrates this long-run adjustment using the AS-AD model.

Last year, aggregate demand was AD 0, aggregate supply was AS 0, the price level was 100, and real GDP was \$10 trillion (at full employment). If aggregate demand increases to AD 1 and aggregate supply changes to AS 1, the price level rises by 3 percent to 103. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...

But if aggregate demand increases to AD 2 and aggregate supply changes to AS 2, the price level rises by 7 percent to 107. In both cases, real GDP remains at \$10 trillion, and because the economy is at full employment, unemployment remains at the natural unemployment rate. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...

 Expected Inflation The expected inflation rate is the inflation rate that people forecast and use to set the money wage rate and other money prices. Because the actual inflation rate equals the expected inflation rate at full employment, we can interpret the long-run Phillips curve as the relationship between inflation and unemployment when the inflation rate equals the expected inflation rate.

If the natural unemployment rate is 6 percent, the long-run Phillips curve is LRPC. If the expected inflation rate is 3 percent a year, the short-run Phillips curve is SRPC 0. If the expected inflation rate is 7 percent a year, the short-run Phillips curve is SRPC 1. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...

 The Natural Rate Hypothesis The natural rate hypothesis is the proposition that when the money supply growth rate changes, the unemployment rate changes temporarily and eventually returns to the natural unemployment rate. Figure 32.6 shows the natural rate hypothesis.

The inflation rate is 3 percent a year and the economy is at full employment, at point A. Then the inflation rate increases. In the short run, the increase in inflation brings a decrease in the unemployment rate — a movement along SRPC 0 to point B. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...

Eventually, the higher inflation rate is expected and the short- run Phillips curve shifts upward to SRPC 1. At the higher expected inflation rate, unemployment returns to the natural unemployment rate—the natural rate hypothesis. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...

 Changes in the Natural Unemployment Rate If the natural unemployment rate changes, both the long-run Phillips curve and the short-run Phillips curve shift. When the natural unemployment rate increases, both the long-run Phillips curve and the short-run Phillips curve shift rightward. When the natural unemployment rate decreases, both the long-run Phillips curve and the short-run Phillips curve shift leftward.

Figure 32.7 shows the effect of changes in the natural unemployment rate. The expected inflation rate is 3 percent a year. 32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN... The natural unemployment rate is 6 percent.

32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN... The short-run Phillips curve is SRPC 0 and the long-run Phillips curve is LRPC 0. An increase in the natural unemployment rate shifts the two Phillips curves rightward to LRPC 1 and SRPC 1.

32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN... A decrease in the natural unemployment rate shifts the two Phillips curves leftward to LRPC 2 and SRPC 2.

32.2 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN...  Does the Natural Unemployment Rate Change? Economists don’t agree about the size of the natural unemployment rate or the extent to which it fluctuates. The majority view is that the natural unemployment rate changes slowly or barely at all and is around 6 percent, the actual average unemployment rate since 1960. An increasing number of economists question the view that natural unemployment rate in constant.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION  What Determines the Expected Inflation Rate? The expected inflation rate is the inflation rate that people forecast and use to set the money wage rate and other money prices. Rational expectation The inflation forecast resulting from use of all the relevant data and economic science.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION  How Responsive Is the Tradeoff to a Change in Expected Inflation? A change in the expected inflation rate shifts the short- run tradeoff gradually. The reason is that the tradeoff depends on the rate of increase in the money wage rate.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION The tradeoff changes only when the rate of increase in the money wage rate changes in response to a change in the expected inflation rate. Some money wage rates respond quickly to a changed expectation about inflation. But most money wage rates are determined on long- term contracts.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION The presence of long-term labor contracts means that the short-run tradeoff responds gradually to a change in the expected inflation rate. If the Fed increases the trend inflation rate, it will take several years before the tradeoff shifts upward to reflect that change. The gradual response of the tradeoff to a change in the expected inflation rate leads to fluctuations around full employment.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION  What Can Policy Do to Lower Expected Inflation? If the Fed wants to lower the inflation rate, it can pursue two alternative lines of attack: A surprise inflation reduction A credible announced inflation reduction Figure 32.8 shows the effects of policy actions to lower the inflation rate.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION The economy is on the short- run Phillips curve SRPC 0 and on the long-run Phillips curve LRPC. The natural unemployment rate is 6 percent, and inflation is 10 percent a year.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION An unexpected slowdown in aggregate demand growth slows the inflation rate but increases the unemployment rate as the economy slides down along SRPC 0.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION Eventually, the expected inflation rate falls and the short run Phillips curve shifts to SRPC 1. The unemployment rate remains above at 6 percent through the adjustment.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION Alternatively, a credible, announced slowdown in aggregate demand growth lowers the expected inflation rate and shifts the short-run Phillips curve downward to SRPC 1. Inflation slows to 3 percent a year, and unemployment remains at 6 percent.

32.3 EXPECTED INFLATION A Credible Announced Inflation Reduction This announced inflation reduction lowers the inflation rate but with no accompanying loss of output or increase in unemployment. Inflation Reduction in Practice Whether policy can lower inflation without a deep recession is a controversial question.

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