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The neuroscience of philanthropy: Lessons for Marketing in Current and Bequest Giving Research findings from experimental psychology and neuroimaging Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "The neuroscience of philanthropy: Lessons for Marketing in Current and Bequest Giving Research findings from experimental psychology and neuroimaging Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 The neuroscience of philanthropy: Lessons for Marketing in Current and Bequest Giving Research findings from experimental psychology and neuroimaging Professor Russell James Texas Tech University

2 ResearchApplication s Visualized Autobiograph y Family Emotion Avoidance Symbolic Immortalit y Life Stories Mixed Packagin g Tribute Bequests Bequest Permanen ce Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Family Words Not Formal Words

3 Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Charitable giving is a social act using the mechanisms of family bonding Research

4 First charitable giving fMRI study Charitable giving is rewarding (like receiving money) But uniquely involves oxytocin-rich social attachment brain regions (used in maternal and romantic love) “donating to societal causes recruited two types of reward systems: the VTA–striatum mesolimbic network, which also was involved in pure monetary rewards, and the subgenual area, which was specific for donations and plays key roles in social attachment and affiliative reward mechanisms in humans and other animals.” Moll, et al (2006) PNAS 103(42), p. 156234.

5 Increasing neuropeptide “oxytocin” – a family bonding hormone – increases giving Zak, P. J., Stanton, A. A., & Ahmadi, S. (2007). Oxytocin increases generosity in humans. PLoS ONE, 11, e1128 Charitable giving as “synthetic family”

6 Human touch, when followed by a small gift, elevated oxytocin levels AND subsequent charitable giving Morhenn, V. B., Park, J. W., Piper, E., Zak, P. J. (2008). Monetary sacrifice among strangers is mediated by endogenous oxytocin release after physical contact. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 375-383. Charitable giving as “synthetic family”

7 The strongest predictor of charitable bequest planning is childlessness James, R. N., III. (2009). Health, wealth, and charitable estate planning: A longitudinal examination of testamentary charitable giving plans. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38(6), 1026-1043. Charitable giving as “synthetic family”

8 The U.S. has high mobility, low extended family ties, and relatively high giving. Low giving nations tend to have low mobility and high extended family ties. Charitable giving as “synthetic family”

9 Charitable giving as a “social act” Charitable giving generated greater activation in reward centers (ventral striatum) in the brain when observers were present Izuma, K., Saito, D. N., & Sadato, N. (2010). Processing of the Incentive for Social Approval in the Ventral Striatum during Charitable Donation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22 (4), 621-631.

10 Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Charitable giving is a social act using the mechanisms of family bonding Research

11 Build family-social relationships, not market-contract relationships Do you call? Do you write? Do you visit? Are you closer to extended family members who do these things?

12 Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Charitable giving is a social act using the mechanisms of family bonding Research

13 Application Research Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Family Words Not Formal Words Use family-appropriate language: Stories and simple words Avoid market/contract language

14 Make a gift where you get an immediate tax deduction, still control the investment of the assets and receive income from the investments for the rest of your life with anything left over going to charity at your death. Make a transfer of assets Describing a CRT: Does it really make any difference? Social Realm (identity) I help people because of who I am Market Realm (exchange) I engage in transactions by formal contract

15 Social Realm (identity) I help people because of who I am Market Realm (exchange) I engage in transactions by formal contract Social/family norms encourage giving Market/contract norms do not

16 Use family language: stories and simple words Avoid market language: formal contract terms Social Realm (identity) I help people because of who I am Market Realm (exchange) I engage in transactions by formal contract Social/family norms encourage giving Market/contract norms do not

17 Make a gift where you get an immediate tax deduction, still control the investment of the assets and receive income from the investments for the rest of your life with anything left over going to charity at your death. Make a transfer of assets 2014 Survey 1,059 Respondents

18 Describing a CGA: Does it really make any difference? Social Realm (identity) I help people because of who I am Market Realm (exchange) I engage in transactions by formal contract Make a gift and in exchange receive a guaranteed lifetime income from the charity receive a guaranteed lifetime income from the charity Enter into a contract with a charity where you transfer your cash or property and in exchange Gift Contract

19 Make a gift and in exchange receive a guaranteed lifetime income from the charity receive a guaranteed lifetime income from the charity Enter into a contract with a charity where you transfer your cash or property and in exchange 2014 Survey 1,059 Respondents

20 Formal language lowers charitable interest Interested Now 36% 22% Will Never Be Interested 14% 23% 2014 Survey, 1,417 Respondents, Group F/G Get an immediate tax deduction and still receive income from your investments for the rest of your life by making a gift where you control the investment of the assets, but anything left over goes to charity at your death. Get an immediate tax deduction and still receive income from your investments for the rest of your life by making a gift using a “Charitable Remainder Trust” where you control the investment of the assets, but anything left over goes to charity at your death.

21 Formal language lowers charitable interest Interested Now 50% 23% Will Never Be Interested 8% 19% 2014 Survey, 1,418 Respondents, Group F/G Receive a tax deduction and make a gift that pays you income for life called a “Charitable Gift Annuity”

22 Formal language lowers charitable interest Interested Now 26% 15% Will Never Be Interested 23% 30% 2014 Survey, 1,422 Respondents, Group F/G Immediately receive a tax deduction for 70% of the value of a house or land by making a charitable gift of the property, but keeping the right to use it for the rest of your life. Immediately receive a tax deduction for 70% of the value of a house or land by making a charitable gift of the property, using a “Remainder Interest Deed” but keeping the right to use it for the rest of your life.

23 Emphasize social nature of activity Interested Now 30% 23% 12% Will Never Be Interested 9% 12% 14% 2014 Survey, 1,875 Respondents, Groups C/E/LateG+H Many people like to leave a gift to charity in their will. Are there any causes you would support in this way? Make a gift to charity in my will Make a bequest gift to charity

24 Application Research Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Use family language showing personal identity I help people because of who I am Avoid market/contract language I formally contract for my benefit Family Words Not Formal Words

25 Gifts from current income Gifts from assets

26 Research Bequest decision-making emphasizes “visualized autobiography” brain regions Visualized Autobiography

27 * weighted nationally representative 2006 sample from Health and Retirement Study Bequest Giving is Different

28 Charitable bequest decision- making v. giving or volunteering decision- making

29

30 Contrast Brain Region MNI co-ord inates Peak p FWE Clust -er p FWE (1) Beq> Give Lingual Gyrus -2, -78, -2.004.000 Precuneus 26, -66, 42.102.009 (2) Beq> Vol Lingual Gyrus 2, -80, - 4.007.000 Precuneus 30, -66, 40.180.004 Precentral Gyrus -34, -3, 36.397.001 (3) Beq> (Give+ Vol) Lingual Gyrus 0, -78, - 4.001.000 Precuneus 26, -66, 42.007.001

31 Visualized autobiography visualization + 3 rd person perspective on self lingual gyrus is part of the visual system, damage can result in losing the ability to dream precuneus has been called “the mind’s eye,” used in taking a 3 rd person perspective on one’s self

32 In a study where older adults were shown photographs from across their life, precuneus and lingual gyrus activation occurred when they were able to vividly relive events in the photo, but not where scenes were only vaguely familiar (Gilboa, et al., 2004) Visualized Autobiography In other studies, both regions simultaneously activated by mentally “traveling back in time” (Viard, et al., 2007) or recalling autobiographical personal events Denkova (2006)

33 2011 dissertation (Routley), interviewing planned bequest donors, “Indeed, when discussing which charities they had chosen to remember, there was a clear link with the life narratives of many respondents” Visual autobiography in practice

34 Research Bequest decision-making emphasizes “visualized autobiography” brain regions Visualized Autobiography

35 Research Visualized Autobiography Application Life Stories Tell life stories of donors who will live beyond their death through their bequest giving

36 Tested different marketing messages with 11 groups, 4,560 total, 40 charities If you were asked in the next 3 months, what is the likelihood that you might GIVE money to _____? If you signed a will in the next 3 months, what is the likelihood you might leave a BEQUEST gift to _____?

37 Organization BEQ Giv e Amer Cancer Society26.7936.77 The Red Cross25.9341.12 ASPCA 24.1833.77 Habitat for Humanity24.0134.90 Amer Heart Association23.1733.95 Natl Cancer Coalition22.5634.54 Breast Cancer Res Fnd22.5333.93 Natl Breast Cancer Fnd22.4333.48 The Amer Humane Assn22.2333.91 The Alzheimer's Found21.4032.00 Susan G. Komen Br Canc21.3929.22 Dana Farber Cancer Inst21.1329.63 American Diabetes Assn20.8432.54 World Wildlife Fund20.8229.08 Guide Dogs for the Blind20.8031.46 The Alzheimer's Assn20.8031.86 American Lung Assn20.7831.40 MD Anderson Cancer Cr20.5930.53 UNICEF20.3732.31 The Salvation Army19.9831.44 Organization BEQ Giv e Wildlife Conserv Soc19.9029.26 Goodwill Industries19.6534.42 Big Brothrs/Big Sisters19.4730.49 The United Way18.9728.97 Joslin Diabetes Center18.9129.18 Canine Compan for In18.9029.67 Fnd Fightng Blindness18.7728.37 AIDS Project LA17.7125.64 Prevent Blindss Amer17.5128.32 San Fran AIDS Found17.3925.49 Nat Audubon Society17.3324.24 YMCA17.1628.12 Boys and Girls Clubs17.1430.10 Girl Scouts16.7131.27 YWCA16.2124.42 Amer Indian College F15.9722.33 CARE15.8624.69 Boy Scouts14.5123.56 United Negro Coll Fnd14.1321.90 Ducks Unlimited13.6019.49

38 Other groups received messages after the current giving question to see if the bequest gap would shrink

39 Social Norms Formal Evidence Information indicating that it is common for Americans to leave 5% or 10% to charity. Sharing survey results showing agreement with concept. Spendthrift Heirs Formal Evidence Statistics showing how rapidly heirs typically spend inheritance from published academic research Message Give- BEQ Gap Gap 50+ Gap Male Gap Female None10.214.0 7.711.7 Spendthrift Heirs (Formal) 9.411.4 8.410.1 Social Norms (Formal) 8.811.7 7.59.7 Heirs + Social Norms 8.010.2 6.49.0

40 With new images or pure text (no significant difference) Deceased bequest donor life stories Message Give-Beq Gap Gap 50+ Gap Male Gap Female None10.214.0 7.711.7 Spendthrift Heirs (Formal) 9.411.4 8.410.1 Social Norms (Formal) 8.811.7 7.59.7 Heirs + Social Norms 8.010.2 6.49.0 Deceased Beq. Stories6.77.54.47.5

41 With new images or pure text (no significant difference) Living bequest donor life stories E.g., “School janitor Lester Holmes died in 1992” becomes “School janitor Lester Holmes signed his will today” Message Give-Beq Gap Gap 50+ Gap Male Gap Female None10.214.0 7.711.7 Spendthrift Heirs (Formal) 9.411.4 8.410.1 Social Norms (Formal) 8.811.7 7.59.7 Heirs + Social Norms 8.010.2 6.49.0 Deceased Beq. Stories6.77.54.47.5 Living Bequest Stories4.44.33.35.0

42 Which of the four message types worked best for which of the 40 charities?

43 Living donor stories outperformed all other messages for 40 out of 40 charities tested

44 Which charities saw the biggest improvement from donor stories?

45 Largest improvement Wildlife Conservation Society World Wildlife Federation Canine Companions for the Blind Guide Dogs for the Blind Big Brothers / Big Sisters of America The stories featured gifts benefiting wildlife, dogs, and youth and two unrepresented categories (symphony and hospital chapel) The bequest donor concept helped all charities, but the story cause still mattered

46 With new images or pure text (no significant difference) Effect of More Stories 1 st 4 Stories: Janitor, pet groomer, carpenter, symphony patron 2 nd 3 Stories: fisherman, coach, physician Message Give-Beq Gap Gap 50+ Gap Male Gap Female None10.214.0 7.711.7 Deceased 1 st 4 stories6.87.55.57.6 Deceased All 7 stories6.67.55.47.4 Mixed Dec/Liv 7 stories6.07.25.06.6 Living 1 st 4 stories4.85.73.95.4 Living All 7 stories4.12.53.04.7

47 Although numerical ability declines with age, verbal knowledge does not Park, et al (2002) Psychology and Aging, 17(2), 299-320

48 Age at Will Signing (by share of total charitable bequest $ transferred) Australian data from: Baker, Christopher (October, 2013) Encouraging Charitable Bequests by Australians. Asia-Pacific Centre for Social Investment & Philanthropy - Swinburne University

49 Over 80% of charitable bequest dollars come from decedents aged 80+

50 Most realized charitable plans (shown in red) added within 5 years of death Total Number Total $

51 Research Visualized Autobiography Application Life Stories Tell life stories of donors who will live beyond their death through their bequest giving

52 Research Bequests to friends and family engage memory and emotion brain regions more than charitable bequests Family Emotion

53 New experiment Increased realism of decision-making Comparing different types of bequest decision (not bequest giving v. current giving)

54 At the end of this session, a legally valid last will and testament will be mailed to you at no charge. To help you design your plan, we need to ask about some of your desires and preferences… (in varied order) About what percentage of your estate would you like to go to any charities?... friends who are not family members?... family members? Are there any specific personal property items you would like to leave to any charities? …friends who are not family members? …family members? Would you like to leave any specific dollar amount cash gifts (e.g., $250) to any charities? …friends who are not family members? ….family members?

55 Bequests to friends and family (v. charitable bequests) more heavily involve brain regions of 1. Emotion (mid/posterior cingulate cortex; insula) 2. Memory (hippocampus) This difference was stronger for females than males. See Maddock, Garrett & Buonocore, 2003

56 Research Bequests to friends and family engage memory and emotion brain regions more than charitable bequests Family Emotion

57 Tribute Bequests Remind donors of life story connections of friends/family with the charity/cause and provide tribute bequest opportunities Research Family Emotion Application

58 Female, 63 widowed ‘The reason I selected Help the Aged... it was after my mother died... And I just thought – she’d been in a care home for probably three or four years. And I just wanted to help the elderly... I’d also support things like Cancer Research, because people I’ve known have died... An animal charity as well, I had a couple of cats.’ Bequest charity representing loved ones “‘[In my will I have a gift to] the Cancer Research. My father died of cancer and so I have supported them ever since he died.’ Male, 89 married (Routley, 2011, p. 220-221)

59 Since many charitable bequest gifts appear to be in honor of a loved one, what happens when we specifically ask about making a charitable bequest honoring a friend or family member?

60 Bequests to friends and family (v. charitable bequests) more heavily involve brain regions of Emotion (mid/posterior cingulate cortex; insula) and Memory (hippocampus) Can a charitable bequest represent a loved one, and thereby connect with this memory and emotion?

61 Do you have a deceased friend or deceased family member who would have appreciated your support of an International relief organization such as CARE or UNICEF? Also tested for living friend or family member Alzheimer’s The Alzheimer's Association, The Alzheimer's Foundation Diabetes Joslin Diabetes Center, The American Diabetes Association Wild Birds Preservation National Audubon Society, Ducks Unlimited Wildlife World Wildlife Fund, Wildlife Conservation Society Minority College Fund United Negro College Fund, American Indian College Fund Blindness related nonprofit Foundation Fighting Blindness, Prevent Blindness America Youth-related charitable Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, YMCA, YWCA, Big Brothers / Big Sisters of America, Boys and Girls Clubs of America AIDS research and care San Francisco AIDS Foundation, AIDS Project Los Angeles Animal welfare American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, The American Humane Association International relief UNICEF, Care Cancer research American Cancer Society, National Cancer Coalition, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute Guide dogs Guide Dogs for the Blind, Canine Companions for Independence Breast cancer research Breast Cancer Research Foundation, National Breast Cancer Foundation, Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation If so, please state your relationship to them and write at least 25 words describing their interest in or connection with this cause. If you signed a will in the next 3 months, what is the likelihood you might leave a BEQUEST gift honoring a living [deceased] friend or family member to _____ Testing the tribute bequest

62 Change in charitable bequest intention for those with family/friend connection TotalAge 50+ MaleFemale Memorial reminder +14.0 +13.5+14.0 Living reminder +9.2+9.3+7.7+9.9 Connection reminder + tribute bequest offer increases interest Average share with family/friend connections to each cause TotalAge 50+ MaleFemale Memorial reminder 22.1%27.1%19.5%23.6% Living reminder 34.2%36.1%30.4%36.6%

63 Change in charitable bequest intention for those with family/friend connection TotalAge 50+ MaleFemale Memorial reminder +11.7+12.2+11.0+12.1 Memorial reminder (after other messages) +15.0+14.0+15.3+14.8 Living reminder +9.4+11.3+6.4+10.0 Living reminder (after other messages) +9.2+9.1+7.9+9.9 Connection reminder + tribute bequest offer can be “stacked” with other bequest messages

64 Giving – Tribute Bequest Total Age 50+ MaleFemale Memorial reminder (after living/ deceased stories) -4.2-1.7-6.5-3.1 Living reminder (after living/ deceased stories) -3.3-2.3-2.4-3.7 Donor stories + tribute reminder eliminates giving-bequest intention gap for those with friend/family connections DONOR STORY TRIBUTE REMINDER DONOR STORY

65 Do tribute bequests work better/worse for different types of organizations?

66 Memorial Living Diabetes16.9 Wild birds12.8 Alzheimer’s16.0 Diabetes12.7 AIDS14.1 AIDS11.4 Minority college fund 14.0 Alzheimer’s11.2 Cancer12.6 Int’l relief10.4 Breast canc.11.7 Blindness10.3 Wild birds 11.1 Pets9.5 Int’l relief 10.9 Cancer9.4 Pets10.6 Guide dogs9.3 Blindness10.2 Breast canc.8.6 Guide dogs 9.2 Minority college fund 7.4 Youth7.7 Wildlife6.1 Wildlife7.1 Youth5.2 Impact Change in charitable bequest intention for those with family/friend connection Frequency Likelihood of reporting a family or friend connection with the cause MemorialLiving Cancer46% Pets56% Breast canc.39% Breast canc.54% Alzheimer’s29% Cancer49% Diabetes28% Wildlife41% Pets28% Diabetes38% Wildlife18% Youth37% Guide dogs 15% Alzheimer’s30% Youth15% Guide dogs23% Int’l relief 14% Wild birds18% AIDS11% Minority college fund 18% Wild birds 10% AIDS17% Blindness9% Int’l relief16% Minority college fund 8% Blindness15% Impact and frequency vary with cause

67 Do memorial or tribute bequests work better or worse for different family members?

68 Tribute bequests are more attractive for ascendants, less for descendants or friends Family and friend words associated with interest in a tribute bequest (ranked by strength of correlation) PositiveNon-significantNegative grandmother +7.5dadgirl -12.8 family +3.5childrenboy -13.7 mother +2.4unclekids -8.4 aunt +2.6sistergirls -12.1 grandfather +2.7momfriends -3.5 husband +3.6wifeboys -11.6 cousinbrother -6.4 parentsdaughter -6.1 sonchild -5.8 fatherfriend -1.4

69 Simple language and starting with honor Interested Now 23% 16% 13% Will Never Be Interested 17% 21% 2014 Survey, 1,961 Respondents, Groups B/A/H Honor a friend or family member by making a memorial gift to charity in my last will & testament Make a bequest gift to charity in my last will & testament in honor of a friend or family member who appreciated the charity's work Make a bequest gift to charity in my last will & testament in honor of a friend or family member who was passionate about the charity's work

70 Simple implementations Samples courtesy of Phyllis Freedman, President of SmartGiving and “The Planned Giving Blogger” to “honor a friend or family member by making a memorial gift to charity in my last will & testament” In a 2014 survey, 1 in 4 increased their intention to leave a charitable bequest when given the option

71 Tribute Bequests Remind donors of life story connections of friends/family with the charity/cause and provide tribute bequest opportunities Research Family Emotion Application

72 Research Avoidance The first-stage defense to death reminders (bequest planning) is avoidance

73 Avoidance (1 st Stage Defense)

74 Regardless of terminology or packaging, estate planning is planning for one’s own death. It is a strong reminder of the reality of one’s own mortality. Experimental research has identified consistent reactions to mortality reminders.

75 Distract: I’m too busy to think about that right now Differentiate: It doesn’t apply to me now because I (exercise, have good cholesterol, don’t smoke…) Deny: These worries are overstated Delay: I definitely plan to think about this… later Depart: I am going to stay away from that reminder Forms of Avoidance

76 What is the most common response to an organ donation request? YES NO I don’t want to think about it

77 No, people don’t want to donate organs

78 Yes, people do want to donate organs No, people don’t want to donate organs

79 “Opt-in” systems in Gold “Opt-out” systems in Blue Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do Defaults Save Lives? Science, 302, 1338-1339.

80 “Opt-in” systems in Gold “Opt-out” systems in Blue I don’t want to opt in Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do Defaults Save Lives? Science, 302, 1338-1339.

81 “Opt-in” systems in Gold “Opt-out” systems in Blue I don’t want to opt out Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do Defaults Save Lives? Science, 302, 1338-1339.

82 “Opt-in” systems in Gold “Opt-out” systems in Blue I don’t want to think about it! Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do Defaults Save Lives? Science, 302, 1338-1339.

83 Wasn’t asked or “no” * Weighted nationally representative 2006 sample representing age 52 and over population of U.S. I don’t want to think about it! Yes

84 “Opt-in” systems in Gold “Opt-out” systems in Blue Because I don’t want to think about it, the default or social norm becomes powerful Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do Defaults Save Lives? Science, 302, 1338-1339.

85 Many of our customers like to leave money to charity in their will. Are there any causes you’re passionate about? Would you like to leave any money to charity in your will? No reference to charity Charitable bequest decisions are often unstable and easily influenced Charitable plans among 1,000 testators Charitable plans among 1,000 testators Charitable plans among 1,000 testators

86 Research Avoidance The first-stage defense to death reminders (bequest planning) is avoidance

87 Research Application Avoidance Mixed Packaging Communicate bequest information through mixed packaging

88 Seminar Tonight: Estate Planning What you see Seminar Tonight: Your Upcoming Death What the subconscious sees

89 Mixed Packaging The topic is subconsciously aversive, so combine (or mask) with more attractive topics to sidestep the initial avoidance response

90 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Here mixed packaging motivates action with non-death related reasons Here mixed packaging presents information in non-death related contexts

91 Stories from the frontlines: [cause] and those who make it happen Seminar: Charitable Estate Planning Stories about the nonprofit work and support of planned giving donors who make it happen Larger, but committed, audience

92 Use a hypothetical question in a broad survey to identify prospects Which of the following areas do you consider to be the most important for this organization? □ Student scholarships □ Scientific research □ Classroom teaching □ Community outreach □ Other: _________________ If you were to complete a will in the next three months, what is the likelihood that you might include a gift to [organization]? □ None □ Slightly Likely □ Somewhat Likely □ Very Likely □ Definitely

93 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Here mixed packaging motivates action with non-death related reasons Here mixed packaging presents information in non-death related contexts

94 Why now? If I am not going to die tomorrow, why not deal with this unpleasantness later?

95 “But, you MIGHT get hit by a truck tomorrow.”

96 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Later Attach a non-death related negative outcome to “later”

97 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Later Our campaign to reach 100 planned bequest ends in 3 months, won’t you consider joining these others? Left Out of Group

98 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Later We have a matching grant that will pay 10% of planned bequests (up to $10,000 per donor) signed before November 1 No Match

99 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Later The §7520 rates went up. If you don’t sign the remainder interest deed in the next 30 days, your deduction will drop. Lower Deduction

100 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Later The §7520 rates went down. If you don’t fund the CRT/CGA in the next 30 days, your deduction will drop. Lower Deduction

101 I commit to complete an estate plan with a gift to (organization) within 6 months □ Yes □ No □ Already Completed Pledge and follow-up “To show a strong leadership commitment in this planned giving push, we want to announce 100% board participation by the fall banquet. Can we count you in?”

102 Now Yes I don’t want to think about it Later We really appreciate your commitment to make this bequest gift. Can I check back in a month to see how the planning process is going? Violating “Pledge”

103 Research Application Avoidance Mixed Packaging Communicate bequest information through mixed packaging

104 Research The second-stage defense to death reminders is to seek symbolic immortality supporting one’s “in-group” community Symbolic Immortality

105 External realities at times break through this 1 st stage avoidance defense Illness Injury Advancing age Death of a close friend Death of a family member Travel plans Intentionally planning for one’s death through estate planning

106 2 nd stage defense: Symbolic immortality (a form of autobiographical heroism) Some part of one’s self - one’s name, family, community, achievements, values, goals, etc. - will persist after death H

107 Desire for fame (Greenberg, Kosloff, Solomon, et al., 2010) Interest in naming a star after one’s self (ibid) Perception of one’s past significance (Landau, Greenberg, & Sullivan, 2009) Likelihood of describing positive improvements when writing an autobiographical essay (Landau, Greenberg, Sullivan, et al, 2009) Perceived accuracy of a positive personality profile of one’s self (Dechesne, Pyszczynski, Janssen, et al., 2003) Death reminders increase Autobiographic al Heroism Symbolic Immortality COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY VALUESVALUES H

108 Giving among Americans to U.S. charities but not to foreign charities (Jonas, Schimel, Greenberg, et al., 2002) Negative ratings by Americans of anti-US essays (highly replicated) Symbolic Immortality COMMUN ITYCOMMUN ITY VALUESVALUES Autobiographic al Heroism H Death reminders increase allegiance to one’s community and community values: Negative ratings of foreign soft drinks (Friese & Hoffmann, 2008) Predicted number of local NFL football team wins (Dechesne, Greenberg, Arndt, et al., 2000) Ethnic identity among Hong Kong Chinese (Hong, Wong & Liu, 2001) German preference for German mark v. euro (Jonas, Fritsche, & Greenberg, 2005)

109 Support by Iranian students for martyrdom attacks against the U.S. (Pyszczynski, et al. 2006) Willingness of English participants to die or self- sacrifice for England (Routledge, et al, 2008) Dutch agreement (disagreement) with art opinions given by Dutch (Japanese) critics (Renkema, et al., 2008) Voting for female candidates by females, but not by males (Friese & Hoffmann, 2008) Symbolic Immortality COMMUN ITYCOMMUN ITY VALUESVALUES Autobiographic al Heroism H Acceptance of negative stereotypes of residents of other cities (Renkema, et al., 2008), or nations (Schimel, et al. 1999) Support by Israeli participants of military action against Iran (Hirschberger, Pyszczynski & Ein-Dor, 2009)

110 Top 100 UK fundraising charities: Average share of income from legacy gifts 26.6% UK international relief charities (17) in top 100: Average share of income from legacy gifts 5.9% data from Pharoah (2010) Symbolic Immortality COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY VALUESVALUES Autobiographic al Heroism H

111 data from Pharoah (2010) Domestic-focused children’s charities in top 100 UK fundraising charities: Average share of income from legacy gifts Barnardo’s; National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children; BBC Children in Need Appeal International-focused children’s charities in top 100 UK fundraising charities: Average share of income from legacy gifts Save the Children; Compassion UK Christian Child Development 22.8% 7.3% Symbolic Immortality COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY VALUESVALUES Autobiographic al Heroism H

112 The “Ebenezer Scrooge” Effect More self-focused (other-focused) individuals increased (maintained) their ratings of charitable organizations following mortality reminders (Joireman & Duell, 2007)

113 Research The second-stage defense to death reminders is to seek symbolic immortality supporting one’s “in-group” community Symbolic Immortality

114 Research Application Symbolic Immortality Bequest Permanenc e Provide bequest giving opportunities with permanence

115 Autobiographic al Heroism Symbolic Immortality COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY VALUESVALUES Will live beyond them Something reflecting the person’s life story (community and values) Permanence is psychologically attractive H

116 In the previous surveys, among those expressing a difference in preference, people wanted more permanence for bequest gifts than for current gifts by greater than 2 to 1 “ an immediate expenditure of all funds to advance the cause of the charity” v. “the establishment of a permanent fund generating perpetual income to advance the cause of the charity forever”

117 A poverty relief charity was described as an organization that focused on either “meeting the immediate needs of people” or “creating lasting improvements that would benefit people in the future” Normal Group Average Gift Death Reminded Group Avg. Gift Immediate Focused Charity $257.77$80.97 Permanent Focused Charity $100.00$235.71 *participants giving share of potential $1,000 award (Wade- Benzoni, et al., 2012)

118 Organizational age helps (perceived stability and donor age) % of gift income from bequests and founding date of UK cancer charities among Top 100 UK fundraisers (Pharoah, 2010) Data from Pharoah (2010) Cancer Research UK42.6%(1902) Macmillan Cancer Support37.9%(1911) Marie Curie Cancer31.0%(1948) CLIC Sargent Cancer Care for Children 18.6%(1968) Breast Cancer Care2.1%(1972) Breakthrough Breast Cancer1.0%(1991) Walk the Walk Worldwide0.0%(1998)

119 If your organization is newer, consider marketing permanent funds managed by a large financial institution or community foundation to borrow feelings of strength and stability

120 Consider developing permanent giving opportunities for mid- level bequest donors Scholarships, lectureships, annual performances, perpetual child sponsorship, perpetual rescued pet sponsorship, memorial wall of heroes, etc. Limit to legacy donors to emphasize specialness and avoid pulling from current giving Permanence Symbolic Immortality Life Story (community and values)

121 Research Application Symbolic Immortality Bequest Permanenc e Provide bequest giving opportunities with permanence

122 ResearchApplication s Visualized Autobiograph y Family Emotion Avoidance Symbolic Immortalit y Life Stories Mixed Packagin g Tribute Bequests Bequest Permanen ce Philanthropy as Synthetic Family Family Words Not Formal Words

123 Inside the Mind of the Bequest Donor Research findings from experimental psychology and neuroimaging Professor Russell James Texas Tech University


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