2 The commercial uses of enzymes Enzymes synthesized by bacterial and fungal cells have been used for processes like brewing, baking and cheese manufacture.
3 Enzymes are used in biological washing powders Proteases break down the coloured, insoluble proteins that cause stains (e.g. blood and egg) to smaller, colourless soluble polypeptides.Lipases break down fats in grease stains (e.g. Butter and mayonnaise)Can wash at lower temperaturesEnzymes do not harm the environment
4 Enzymes are used in the food industry Pectinase break down substances in apple cell walls and enable greater juice extraction.Lactase breaks down lactose in milk into glucose and galactose. This makes milk drinkable for lactose intolerant people.
5 Enzymes are used in the food industry ProcessUse of enzymesBakingEnzymes in yeast convert sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide makes the bread dough rise.BrewingEnzymes in yeast convert sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The ethanol makes the drink alcoholic; carbon dioxide gives the drink its fizz.Cheese makingThe enzyme rennin, extracted from cows’ stomachs, is used to clot milk.Making baby foodTrypsin (a protease) is used to predigest baby food
6 Enzymes are used in seed germination starchamylasesecretedembryo plantabsorbedmaltose
7 Fungi and bacteria can be used to manufacture enzymes. Use of microorganisms and fermenters to manufacture enzymes for use in biological washing powderFungi and bacteria can be used to manufacture enzymes.The fermenter is a large, sterile container with a stirrer, a pipe to add feedstock (nutrients), and air pipes to blow air into the mixture.The temperature is maintained at around 260 C and a pH of 5-6.