Presentation on theme: "By Marissa Miuccio. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces."— Presentation transcript:
Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy ◦ The far more common type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin. The majority of cases this type of diabetes appears before the patient is 40 years old. That is why this type of diabetes is also known as Juvenile Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type one is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin- producing beta cells in the pancreas. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increase blood and urine glucose. Untreated, Diabetes Mellitus is ultimately fatal However the disease is treated with supplemental insulin Patients are usually trained to manage their disease independently
Various factors may contribute to type 1 diabetes, including genetics and exposure to certain viruses. Although type 1 diabetes typically appears during childhood and adolescence, it can also develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure, although it can be managed. With proper treatement, people who have type 1 diabetes can expect to live longer, healthier lives than they did in the past.
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas. Genetics may play a role in this process, and exposure to certain viruses may trigger the disease.
The role of insulin ◦ Once the islet cells are destroyed, you’ll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is hormone that comes from the pancreas, a gland behind and below the stomach The pancreas secrets insulin into the blood stream The insulin circulates, enabling sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
The role of glucose ◦ Glucose – sugar –is a main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: food and your liver Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin Your liver stores glucose as glycogen When your insulin levels are low, such as when you haven’t eaten in awhile the liver converts stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level at a normal range
Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms come on quickly and may include: ◦ Increase thirst and frequent urination ◦ Extreme hunger and thirst ◦ Weight loss ◦ Fatigue ◦ Blurred vision
Treatment for type 1 diabetes is a lifelong commitment to: ◦ Taking insulin ◦ Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight ◦ Eating healthy foods ◦ Monitoring blood sugar Anyone who has type 1 diabetes needs insulin therapy. Types of insulin include: ◦ Rapid-acting insulin ◦ Long-acting insulin ◦ Intermediate option
Insulin can be administered using: ◦ A fine needle and syringe ◦ An insulin pen –a device that looks like an ink pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin. ◦ An insulin pump – a device about the size of a cell phone worn on the outside of the body. A tube connects a reservoir of insulin to a catheter that’s inserted under the skin of your abdomen. There is also a wireless pump option that’s available.