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Gothic Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp.

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Presentation on theme: "Gothic Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gothic Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp

2 Topics High Gothic Architecture High Gothic Architecture Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France Cathedral of St. Etienne at Bourges Cathedral of St. Etienne at Bourges Cathedral at Riems Cathedral at Riems Sainte-Chappelle Sainte-Chappelle Techniques of Medieval Gothic Builders Techniques of Medieval Gothic Builders

3 High Gothic Architecture The introduction of the flying buttress at Notre- Dame, Paris integrated the three components of Gothic architecture The introduction of the flying buttress at Notre- Dame, Paris integrated the three components of Gothic architecture Rib vaults Rib vaults Flying buttress Flying buttress Pointed arch Pointed arch Redundant features of Romanesque architecture were deleted from future structures Redundant features of Romanesque architecture were deleted from future structures

4 High Gothic Architecture The High Gothic saw the erection of churches with increasingly refined artistic and structural features The High Gothic saw the erection of churches with increasingly refined artistic and structural features First major monument of the High Gothic was the Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France First major monument of the High Gothic was the Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France

5 High Gothic Architecture Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France Flying buttresses were planned from the start so that galleries over the aisles could be eliminated Flying buttresses were planned from the start so that galleries over the aisles could be eliminated The site had long been sacred to the Virgin Mary The site had long been sacred to the Virgin Mary The cathedral was believed to have housed a tunic worn by Mary The cathedral was believed to have housed a tunic worn by Mary Became a center of pilgrimage for Christians Became a center of pilgrimage for Christians

6 High Gothic Architecture Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, France 1194 1194 Fire destroyed the wooden roof of the basilica Fire destroyed the wooden roof of the basilica Bishop of Pisa declared that it was sign Bishop of Pisa declared that it was sign Ordered the construction of a larger church at the cathedral Ordered the construction of a larger church at the cathedral Gothic cathedral at Chartres was built in a span of about twenty-six years (1194 – 1220) Gothic cathedral at Chartres was built in a span of about twenty-six years (1194 – 1220) Completed cathedral glows inside with a wonderful luminosity Completed cathedral glows inside with a wonderful luminosity

7 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

8 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

9 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

10 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

11 High Gothic Architecture Cathedral of St. Etienne at Bourges Cathedral of St. Etienne at Bourges Illustrates a contrasting design approach to that in Chartres Illustrates a contrasting design approach to that in Chartres Many cathedrals in northern Spain are based upon this structure Many cathedrals in northern Spain are based upon this structure Builders wanted to dramatize the sense of verticality and light Builders wanted to dramatize the sense of verticality and light Elevated its vaults 113-ft over a 53-ft nave Elevated its vaults 113-ft over a 53-ft nave

12 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

13 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

14 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

15 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

16 High Gothic Architecture Cathedral at Riems Cathedral at Riems Begun in 1211 after fire had destrued the previous structure Begun in 1211 after fire had destrued the previous structure Based on Chartres Based on Chartres Features a greater sensation of height by adjusting the proportions of the nave Features a greater sensation of height by adjusting the proportions of the nave Most glorious view is from it west front Most glorious view is from it west front

17 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

18 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

19 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

20 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

21 High Gothic Architecture Amiens Cathedral Amiens Cathedral The tallest completed French Gothic church The tallest completed French Gothic church Begun in 1220 and finished by 1269 Begun in 1220 and finished by 1269 Scale is truly gigantic Scale is truly gigantic Portals dwarf the worshiper Portals dwarf the worshiper Rose window is dwarfed by the immense façade Rose window is dwarfed by the immense façade The aisle vaults rise some 60-ft from the inside The aisle vaults rise some 60-ft from the inside The glass creates the sensation of being within a huge fragile cage The glass creates the sensation of being within a huge fragile cage

22 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

23 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

24 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

25 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

26 High Gothic Architecture Sainte-Chappelle, Paris Sainte-Chappelle, Paris Built to house relics King Louis IX had acquired from Constantinople Built to house relics King Louis IX had acquired from Constantinople Included the Crown of Thorns and a piece of the True Cross Included the Crown of Thorns and a piece of the True Cross Two levels Two levels Ground floor chapel for use by household servants Ground floor chapel for use by household servants Upper chapel surrounded by stained glass lancet windows Upper chapel surrounded by stained glass lancet windows For use by the royal family For use by the royal family

27 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

28 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

29 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

30 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

31 High Gothic Architecture Techniques of Medieval Gothic builders Techniques of Medieval Gothic builders Notebook of Villard de Honnecourt Notebook of Villard de Honnecourt Contains a wide range of observations and drawings Contains a wide range of observations and drawings Geometry problems and their solutions Geometry problems and their solutions Timber roof trusses Timber roof trusses Sculpture and carved ornament Sculpture and carved ornament Nature sketches Nature sketches Church plans Church plans

32 High Gothic Architecture Techniques of Medieval Gothic builders Techniques of Medieval Gothic builders Geometry was the theoretical core of medieval architecture Geometry was the theoretical core of medieval architecture Masons established basic building dimensions by a module, and derived all other measurements through the manipulation of compass and straightedge Masons established basic building dimensions by a module, and derived all other measurements through the manipulation of compass and straightedge Masons’ secrets were no more than plane geometry and the use of triangles, squares, pentagons, and other figures to generate proportional lines Masons’ secrets were no more than plane geometry and the use of triangles, squares, pentagons, and other figures to generate proportional lines

33 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

34 High Gothic Architecture Photo: Sullivan

35 References Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture

36 Gothic Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp


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