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TRANSLATION STRATEGIES 11 novembre 2008. Translation Strategies From J.L. Malone, The Science of Linguistics in the Art of Translation (see C. Taylor,

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSLATION STRATEGIES 11 novembre 2008. Translation Strategies From J.L. Malone, The Science of Linguistics in the Art of Translation (see C. Taylor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSLATION STRATEGIES 11 novembre 2008

2 Translation Strategies From J.L. Malone, The Science of Linguistics in the Art of Translation (see C. Taylor, Language to Language, pp. 48- 64) Using examples from several language Malone provides a list of NINE translation strategies, i.e. nine different ways to deal with the differences between Source Language and Target Language at structural and lexical level.

3 Translation Stategies Equation Divergence Amplification Diffusion Reordering Substitution Convergence Reduction Condensation *

4 EQUATION/SUBSTITUTION

5 LOAN WORDS Culturally specific words are often loan words: Italians play rugby or football The English eat lasagna or pesto This also happens when the equivalent term exist: Italians play volley (pallavolo) The English buy rucola (rocket) corner/calcio dangolo Loan words are typical of technical language: -software, business, screening…

6 Never take equation for granted: the same word may not mean the same thing in two languages false-friends: -actually = effettivamente (NON attualmente) -eventually = alla fine (NON eventualmente) -effectively = efficacemente (NON effettivamente)

7 cultural differences: -the experience evoked by a word may not be the same in TL and SL > spaghetti, caffé… > città/paese city/town > REALTA > REALITY?

8 REALTA/REALITY In this case the English equivalent has too high a level of abstraction: Larte come imitazione della realtà/Art as imitation of REALITY? La realtà è dura/REALITY? is hard La sua malattia è una realtà/Her illness is A REALITY? Spesso la non vediamo realtà... /Often we dont see REALITY? La realtà economica/The economic REALITY?

9 Larte come imitazione della realtà/Art as imitation of NATURE La realtà è dura/LIFE is hard La sua malattia è una realtà/Her illness is GENUINE Progetti che diventano realtà/Plans which are REALISED Spesso non vediamo la realtà /Often we dont see THINGS Ha il senso della realtà /He is REALISTIC Bisogna tenere presente la realtà locale/We must keep local NEEDS in mind La realtà economica/The economic SITUATION

10 CALQUE The TL adapts the SL term to its own morphological framework: e.g.: dribblare, formattare radice inglese + suffisso italiano e.g.: bravo! parola italiana + assenza di concordanza in numero e genere (come in inglese)

11 Calque is used too often in everyday language… -Questo jeans è un attimino stonewashato! -Li cutto, li pasto e te li sendo!

12 FIXED EQUATION The Holy Bible = La Sacra Bibbia La Santa Bibbia The Sacred Bible No smoking = Vietato fumare Non si fuma Burning bush = roveto ( cespuglio) ardente

13 In more general terms EQUATION refers to the default situation wherby a tarmi s translated with its one-to- one equivalent (e.g. GENTLE = GENTILE) Lorenzofermòlamacchinaevideunuomo… Lorenzostoppedthecarandsawaman…

14 SUBSTITUTION the antithesis of equation GRAMMAR Gullivers travels I viaggi di Gulliver Farò in modo che si convinca a venire Ill try to get her to come I want you to know that … Voglio che tu sappia che…

15 SUBSTITUTION SEMANTICS La goccia che fa traboccare il vaso The straw that broke the camels back PRAGMATICS Do not lean out E pericoloso sporgersi

16 DIVERGENCE/CONVERGENCE

17 DIVERGENCE (one-to-many) Cream panna Crema glass vetro bicchiere Se dovesse succedere Were it to happen If it were to happen should it happen If it should happen

18 She saw a beautiful dress in the window She opened the window She lowered the window Non ho niente da dire Niente male Niente scherzi Non hanno un bel niente NIENTE I have nothing to say Not bad No messing about! They have nothing at all

19 CONVERGENCE (many-to-one) Commercialista Contabile Ragioniere Accountant Tu Lei Voi You

20 AMPLIFICATION/REDUCTION

21 AMPLIFICATION Swansea is the birthplace of Dylan Thomas Swasea è il luogo natale del famoso scrittore e poeta Dylan Thomas Display Esporre ben in vista

22 REDUCTION Carta geografica Map Psychologist Raymond Carpenter, PhD Lo psicologo Raymond Carpenter

23 DIFFUSION/CONDENSATION

24 DIFFUSION A source text item or utterance is expanded without adding any extra layer of meaning Cheap A buon mercato WeatherwisePer quanto riguarda il tempo The nineteen century sex role system La divisione dei ruoli in base al sesso nel XIX secolo

25 CONDENSATION A source text item or utterance is contracted without omitting any layer of meaning: To look at guardare To fall in loveinnamorarsi To run after inseguire

26 REORDERING Procedures introduced to the re-arrange syntactic units into the most familiar patterns of the target language Black and white Bianco e nero Non è ancora giunto il tempo The time has not yet come È successa una disgrazia Something terrible has happened

27 HIGH PRESSURE Pressione alta: high blood pressure Alta pressione: in the meteorological sense

28 According to 1998-2000 figures, 12% of Europe's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated by tourism and tourism-related activities and over 20 million jobs have been created in this sector, essentially within Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). >... e in questo settore sono stati creati più di 20 millioni di posti di lavoro

29 HOMEWORK Da C. Taylor, Language to Language, pp. 48-64 Suggestions for further practice: 1) download -TRAVELLING IN EUROPE 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/publications/booklets/eu_glance/72/index_en.htm -VIAGGIARE IN EUROPA 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/publications/booklets/eu_glance/72/index_it.htm 2) compare the two texts in terms of translation strategies


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