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Presentation on theme: "TRANSLATION STRATEGIES 11 novembre 2008"— Presentation transcript:


2 Translation Strategies
From J.L. Malone, The Science of Linguistics in the Art of Translation (see C. Taylor, Language to Language, pp ) Using examples from several language Malone provides a list of NINE translation strategies, i.e. nine different ways to deal with the differences between Source Language and Target Language at structural and lexical level.

3 Translation Stategies
Equation Divergence Amplification Diffusion Reordering Substitution Convergence Reduction Condensation *


5 LOAN WORDS Culturally specific words are often loan words:
Italians play rugby or football The English eat lasagna or pesto This also happens when the equivalent term exist: Italians play volley (pallavolo) The English buy rucola (rocket) corner/calcio d’angolo Loan words are typical of technical language: -software, business, screening…

6 Never take equation for granted: the same word may not mean the same thing in two languages
false-friends: actually = effettivamente (NON attualmente) eventually = alla fine (NON eventualmente) effectively = efficacemente (NON effettivamente)

7 cultural differences:
the experience evoked by a word may not be the same in TL and SL > spaghetti, caffé… > città/paese ≠ city/town > REALTA’ > REALITY?

8 REALTA’/REALITY In this case the English equivalent has too high a level of abstraction: L’arte come imitazione della realtà/Art as imitation of REALITY? La realtà è dura/REALITY? is hard La sua malattia è una realtà/Her illness is A REALITY? Spesso la non vediamo realtà... /Often we don’t see REALITY? La realtà economica/The economic REALITY?

9 L’arte come imitazione della realtà/Art as imitation of NATURE La realtà è dura/LIFE is hard La sua malattia è una realtà/Her illness is GENUINE Progetti che diventano realtà/Plans which are REALISED Spesso non vediamo la realtà /Often we don’t see THINGS Ha il senso della realtà /He is REALISTIC Bisogna tenere presente la realtà locale/We must keep local NEEDS in mind La realtà economica/The economic SITUATION

10 CALQUE The TL adapts the SL term to its own morphological framework: e.g.: dribblare, formattare radice inglese + suffisso italiano e.g.: bravo! parola italiana + assenza di concordanza in numero e genere (come in inglese)

11 Calque is used too often in everyday language…
Questo jeans è un attimino stonewashato! Li cutto, li pasto e te li sendo!

12 FIXED EQUATION The Holy Bible = La Sacra Bibbia ≠ La Santa Bibbia
≠The Sacred Bible No smoking = Vietato fumare ≠ Non si fuma Burning bush = roveto (≠ cespuglio) ardente

13 In more general terms EQUATION refers to the default situation wherby a tarmi s translated with its one-to-one equivalent (e.g. GENTLE = GENTILE) Lorenzo fermò la macchina e vide un uomo… stopped the car and saw a man…

14 SUBSTITUTION the antithesis of equation
GRAMMAR Gulliver’s travels I viaggi di Gulliver Farò in modo che si convinca a venire I’ll try to get her to come I want you to know that … Voglio che tu sappia che…

15 SUBSTITUTION SEMANTICS La goccia che fa traboccare il vaso
The straw that broke the camel’s back PRAGMATICS Do not lean out E’ pericoloso sporgersi


17 DIVERGENCE (one-to-many)
panna vetro Cream glass Crema bicchiere If it should happen should it happen Se dovesse succedere If it were to happen Were it to happen

18 She saw a beautiful dress in the window She opened the window
She lowered the window NIENTE Non ho niente da dire Niente male Niente scherzi Non hanno un bel niente I have nothing to say Not bad No messing about! They have nothing at all

19 CONVERGENCE (many-to-one)
Commercialista Accountant Ragioniere Contabile Tu Lei You Voi


21 Swansea is the birthplace of Dylan Thomas
AMPLIFICATION Swansea is the birthplace of Dylan Thomas Swasea è il luogo natale del famoso scrittore e poeta Dylan Thomas Display Esporre ben in vista

22 REDUCTION Carta geografica Map Psychologist Raymond Carpenter, PhD Lo psicologo Raymond Carpenter


24 DIFFUSION A source text item or utterance is expanded without adding any extra layer of meaning Cheap A buon mercato Weatherwise Per quanto riguarda il tempo The nineteen century sex role system La divisione dei ruoli in base al sesso nel XIX secolo

25 CONDENSATION A source text item or utterance is contracted without omitting any layer of meaning: To look at guardare To fall in love innamorarsi inseguire To run after

26 The time has not yet come
REORDERING Procedures introduced to the re-arrange syntactic units into the most familiar patterns of the target language Black and white Bianco e nero Non è ancora giunto il tempo The time has not yet come Something terrible has happened È successa una disgrazia

27 HIGH PRESSURE Pressione alta: high blood pressure
Alta pressione: in the meteorological sense

28 According to figures, 12% of Europe's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated by tourism and tourism-related activities and over 20 million jobs have been created in this sector, essentially within Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). > ... e in questo settore sono stati creati più di 20 millioni di posti di lavoro

29 HOMEWORK Da C. Taylor, Language to Language, pp. 48-64
Suggestions for further practice: 1) download TRAVELLING IN EUROPE 2008 VIAGGIARE IN EUROPA 2008 2) compare the two texts in terms of translation strategies

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