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Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I.

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Presentation on theme: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I

2 Focus on… StructuresLevelsGrammar

3 Morphology Syntax

4 MORPHOLOGY The vocabulary (or lexis) of a language is made up of all the words in that language. A word is an item that can stand alone as a complete unit of meaning. Words can be built up out of smaller units of meaning called morphemes. The branch of linguistics that studies the structure of words is called morphology.

5 The structure of words beautyfulbeautiful

6 Sounds… (phonology/phonetics) ˌ glō-bə-lə- ˈ zā-shən

7 Letters… (graphology) GLOBALIZATION

8 Morphemes… (morphology) GLOBE + AL + IZE + ATION

9 The morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a language and the smallest unit of analysis of sentence and words structure. morphemes have a meaning you can look up their meaning in a dictionary

10 GLOBALIZATION globe = -al = forming adjectives with the sense of pertaining to -ize = forming transitive verbs with the sense of make/treat in a specified way -tion = nouns denoting verbal action

11 GLOBE + AL + IZE + ATION N > Adj > V > N


13 A free morpheme can occur on its own as a word but can also be found with other morphemes: LOVE (n)> - ER LOVE (v) > -S

14 The free morpheme represents the ROOT of a word; bound morphemes can occur left and/or right of the root > AFFIXES EMPLOY - ER; -EE; UN - EMPLOY-MENT

15 Prefixes Suffixes Affixes


17 INFLECTIONAL Inflectional morphemes signal grammar relationship/category -person: -s;work-s -tense: -ed; work-ed -number: -sbook-s -case: -s -degree: -er; -est (adj. or adv.) INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES ARE ALWAYS SUFFIXES

18 DERIVATIONAL Derivational morphemes signal change of meaning or change of word class positive/negative UN- HAPPY adj/noun HAPPY - NESS noun/adj BEAUTY – FUL verb/noun INFORM - ATION … and so on

19 INFLECTIONS (complete list) -s -ed -ing -s s -er -est

20 DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES (sample) -able -age -aholic -al -ant -ate -athon

21 -ation -ed -ee -en -er ery -ese -esque -ette -ful

22 -hood -ial -ian/an -ic -ify -ing -ish -ism -ist -ition

23 -ity -ive -ize/ise -let -ly -ment -ness -or -ous -ship

24 -ward/s -wise -y

25 PREFIXES (sample) agri- anti- arch- auto- bi- bio- co- cyber-

26 de- dis- e- eco- en- euro- ex- hyper- in- inter-

27 intra- mal- mega- micro- mini- mis- mono- multi- neo- non-

28 pan- poly- post- pre- re- semi- sub- super- techno- tele-

29 trans- tri- ultra- un- uni- vice-

30 Morphemes are productive New words can be created through INFLECTION > free morpheme + suffix DERIVATION > free morpheme + affix COMPUNDING > free morpheme + free morpheme

31 Morphemic analysis Leading research and education institutions worldwide will gather in Madrid on June 2 and 3, 2004 at the Conference on Creating Frameworks for Research and Education in Tourism Policy and Destination Management. (World Tourism Organization)


33 English morphemes often have their equivalent in Italian BUT… -eastwards -crabwise -greenish -shopaholic -swimathon

34 The typical solution is PARAPHRASE -eastwards > verso est -crabwise > allindietro/come un gambero -greenish > una specie di verde > verdognolo -swimathon > maratpna di nuoto -shopaholic > affetto/a da sindrome dellacquisto compulsivo

35 Beatrice Alexander 1885-1990 A Shrewd Businesswoman In the mid-1920s, realizing she needed someone she trusted to help her manage the firm, Alexander asked her husband to quit his job. Philip was nervous about making the family's entire financial future dependent on an unproven business, but Beatrice threatened to divorce him if he refused. "I meant it," she later asserted. "It seemed to me I could always get another man." Philip finally agreed and worked alongside his wife until his death in 1966. Beatrice Alexander - A Shrewd Businesswoman" ©Jewish Women's Archive (April 8, 2004)

36 Welcome to AgribusinessOnline, a free market intelligence and technical infor­mation service for agribusiness professionals. AgribusinessOnline is brought to you as a free service by Fintrac Inc. as part of its mandate to disseminate market intelligence and new technologies to farmers and other agribusinesses worldwide. It was created through the merger of Fintrac's Global Agribusi­ ness Information Network and MarketAg. © 2003 Fintrac Inc.

37 Taming Technostress Is technology overwhelming you? Do you rely on computers, voice mail, cell phones, Web sites, faxes and e-mail - and feel overstimulated, panicky or stressed-out about being perpetually "plugged in"? The term technostress was coined in 1984 by psychologist Craig Brod, PhD, in his book, Tech­nostress: The Human Cost Of The Computer Revolution. Larry Rose, PhD, psychologist and coauthor of Technostress: Coping With Technol­ ogy@Work@Home@Play, describes how this type of stress accumulates: "Because technology lets us do so much, today people take on too much and end up feeling overwhelmed and never 'finished'...They never feel true downtime any more"- s.htm © 2000 by IDEA Health & Fitness Source

38 E per finire… Se lArcivescovo di Costantinopoli si disarcivescostantinopolizzasse, vi disarcivescostantinopolizzereste VOI?

39 HOMEWORK LAVIOSA, S. Linking Wor(l)ds: pp.3-13 (+ activities) JACKSON, H.: Grammar and Vocabulary: pp. 8-12 (+ activities)

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