Presentation on theme: "GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES Mrs. Stewart Honors Biology."— Presentation transcript:
GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES Mrs. Stewart Honors Biology
STANDARDS: TSW evaluate the scientific and ethical concerns surrounding DNA/genetic technologies Evaluate DNA fingerprinting, recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. Objectives :
PURPOSE OF GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES Processing DNA from the scene of a crime Improve food crops Determine if a person “carries” the gene for a particular disorder Determine if a person has the gene that will cause a particular disorder before symptoms begin Identify the father of a child Research treatments and cures for genetic diseases
WHAT IS DNA FINGERPRINTING? A technique used by scientists to distinguish between individuals by using the.01% variations in their DNA Non-coding regions of DNA contain repetitive sequences. Each person has a different number of these varying sequences. (VNTR = Variable Number Tandem Repeats)
STEPS IN DNA IDENTIFICATION Copy the DNA billions of times = PCR Cut it with restriction enzymes Sort the DNA using gel electrophoresis PCR animation Gel Electrophoresis Virtual Labs
USING FRAGMENTS TO IDENTIFY Was the suspect at the crime scene?
PATERNITY TESTING By comparing the DNA profile of a mother and her child, it is possible to identify the biological father.
ACCURACY OF DNA PROFILING 13 different locations for VNTR are analyzed The probability that 2 individuals (not identical twins) all the same VNTR is 1 in 100 billion There are only ~6.5 billion people on the planet
Began in early 90s. By 2003, the sequencing was complete Coded the entire human genome onto computers for analysis and study
WHAT DID WE LEARN? Only about 2% of our genome codes for proteins The genome is smaller than we thought! Estimated that we have 100,000 protein-coding genes We actually have about 20-25,000 protein coding genes
HOW DO WE USE THE INFO? Carrier screenings Genetic diagnostic testing Cancer and other genetic disorders research