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Taiga/Boreal Forest.

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Presentation on theme: "Taiga/Boreal Forest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taiga/Boreal Forest

2 The Taiga or Boreal Forest Biome
Taiga is the Russian word for forest. It is the largest land biome in the world. It stretches over Eurasia and North America. The Taiga is located near the top of the world, just below the tundra biome.


4 The winters in the Taiga are very cold
The winters in the Taiga are very cold. The average temperature is below freezing (32 ° F/0 ° C) for six months out of the year. The winter temperature range is -54 to -1° C. The summers are warm, rainy, and humid with temperatures reaching a high of about 70° F. Temperature range in the summer gets as low as -7° C (20° F). Summers are short, usually lasting a few months. Spring and Autumn and short and not as noticeable as they are in Temperate Deciduous Biome regions. The Taiga receives precipitation year round in the form of snow in the winter and rain in the summer. The total precipitation in a year is cm ( in) . Most of the precipitation in the Taiga falls as rain in the summer. video Segment- watch only first 23 min (optional)

5 The majority of evergreen flora (trees) in the Taiga are coniferous evergreens like spruce, white pine, fir, and hemlock. They have long, thin waxy needles. The wax gives them some protection from freezing temperatures and from drying out. Evergreens don't loose their leaves in the winter like deciduous trees. They keep their needles all year long. This is so they can start photosynthesis as soon as the weather gets warm. The dark color of evergreen needles allows them to absorb heat from the sun and also helps them start photosynthesis early. Evergreens in the taiga tend to be thin and grow close together. This gives them protection from the cold and wind. Evergreens also are usually shaped like an upside down cone to protects the branches from breaking under the weight of all that snow. The snow slides right off the slanted branches. Species of deciduous trees like Aspen and birch can also be found in the Taiga. These trees do lose their leaves in the winter. The soil in the Taiga is very acidic because of the evergreen needle litter that has built up over many years.





10 Fauna (animals) of the Taiga include predators like the lynx and wolf and members of the weasel family like wolverines, minks, and ermine. They hunt herbivores like snowshoe rabbits, red squirrels and voles. Red deer, elk, and moose can be found in regions of the Taiga where more deciduous trees grow.

11 Fauna of the T IG

12 The paws of the lynx are wide like snowshoes so it can walk better on deep snow.
North American Lynx

13 Wolverines are fierce. Even bears won’t usually mess with them
Wolverines are fierce. Even bears won’t usually mess with them. Native Americans called it carcajou, a French corruption of a Native American word meaning Evil Spirit or Mountain Devil.


15 Though they look cute and cuddly, wild minks are also vicious predators. The are found near the water and often feed on aquatic animals.

16 Ermines are close relatives to mink and weasels.

17 Gray or timber wolves roam between Tundra, Taiga, and northern Temperate forests.

18 Red Foxes are examples of animals that have adapted to a number of different biomes.

19 Great Gray Owl

20 Black bears have also adapted to a number of different biomes
Black bears have also adapted to a number of different biomes. They are omnivores. While they can hunt, most of their “hunting” consists of digging for small rodents like the lemmings or voles.

21 Elk often migrate between the Taiga and northern temperate forests and grasslands.


23 Red Squirrels

24 Beaver are found in the Taiga where deciduous trees are located.

25 Lemmings and voles are important prey species for small predators like foxes, lynx, and owls.

26 Animal Adaptation The snowshoe rabbit also has wide paws to keep it from sinking into the snow.

27 How about reptiles and amphibians
How about reptiles and amphibians? Are there any that are able to withstand the long, extremely harsh taiga winters? What do you think?

28 Not very many. A couple species of frogs, a salamander species, and one snake species.
Mink frog Wood frog Red-sided garter snake. Blue-spotted salamander

29 Flora of the T IG

30 Because bog soil is acidic, carnivorous plants like the sundew and species of pitcher plant can be found in some bogs.

31 Pitcher Plants

32 Special Wetland Areas: Bogs

33 Special wetland areas known as bogs are found in the Taiga
Special wetland areas known as bogs are found in the Taiga. Bogs are wetland areas that have thick layers of sphagnum and similar type mosses. The thick layers of the partially decomposed mosses are commonly referred to as peat. Peat is harvested and used as a fuel source in some areas of northern Europe and as a soil additive in many parts of the world. Unfortunately, peat accumulates only at the rate of about 1 cm every ten years, and many peat bogs have been completely cleaned out by peat “farmers.”



36 This mummy found in a European peat bog is of a man who died by hanging about 2,000 years ago. Hundreds of Bog People (as they are called) have been found in the bogs of Europe. Most had been killed and buried in the bog.


38 This guy died about 1600 years ago. His neck was sliced from ear to ear.

39 Review

40 Which biome indicates the location of taiga biome?

41 What primary factors determine the type of biome that can become established in a geographic location? Average annual temperatures Latitude Annual Precipitation Altitude

42 The shaded area on this map of North America shows the range of moose habitat. Based on this map, moose are most likely found in what biome? Taiga/Boreal Forest

43 The most important limiting factor in any terrestrial biome is
the amount of precipitation the area receives.

44 What is the primary reason animals migrate?
To find food. Geese might be able to survive the cold of the tundra, but they wouldn’t be able to find food.

45 Which image(s) were most likely taken taiga/boreal forest?

46 Use the SchoolPad to mark the animals that are found in the Taiga Biome.
moose snowshoe rabbit armadillo gray wolf gray fox gray squirrel lynx red fox red squirrel- wolverine red-sided garter ermine American black snake bear

47 Which industry might find the taiga biome the most appealing?

48 The taiga biome borders the tundra biome
The taiga biome borders the tundra biome. Both biomes have very long, harsh winters. What primary factor(s) make it possible for trees to grow in the taiga but not the tundra?

49 There is no permafrost in the taiga
There is no permafrost in the taiga. The taiga receives more annual precipitation.

50 In what way(s) are the taiga conifers adapted for life in this biome?
They are triangle shaped which makes it easier for snow to slide off. They have small, waxy leaves that slow the loss of water through transpiration. The leaves (aka “needles”) of the trees contain special oil that freeze at a lower temperature than water. The small leaves are very dark, so they absorb more heat. They can survive long, harsh winters.

51 Which of these is a type of adaptation that enables a particular animal(s) to live in the taiga biome? Thick fur and fat. Feet that spread out like snowshoes so the animal doesn’t sink into the snow as far. Ability to migrate during the winter. Ability to hibernate during the winter. Ability to change fur color to white during the winter.

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